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Early Electrification of Buffalo

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Revision as of 14:10, 13 November 2013


[NOTE: This is Part 1 of a fourteen part series of articles first developed as a PowerPoint presentation by Craig A. Woodworth, IEEE Life Member (a.k.a Cawoody), for a joint meeting of the Buffalo Section IEEE and the Buffalo & Erie County Historical Society on April 14, 2004.]

See also:

Early Electrification of Buffalo: Advent of Alternating Current (Part 2)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Developing a Renewable Energy Source (Part 3)
Early Electrification Of Buffalo: Niagara Falls Hydraulic Development - Adams Station (Part 4)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Adams Station - Electric Development (Part 5)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Niagara to Buffalo Transmission Lines (Part 6)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Electricity Distribution Within Buffalo (Part 7)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Early Power Company Interconnections (Part 8)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Niagara Falls Water Diversion Limitations Result in Steam Station Construction (Part 9)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency (Part 10)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service available in Buffalo (Part 11)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: 60-Hz Replaces 25-Hz (Part 12)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: Contributions of Five AIEE Presidents (Part 13)
Early Electrification of Buffalo: 1925 Residential Electric Bill (Part 14)


Figure 1.1   Location of Buffalo
Figure 1.1 Location of Buffalo

The City of Buffalo is located in western New York State at the junction of Lake Erie and the Niagara River. It is approximately ten miles north-to-south and six miles east-to-west with an area of 42 square miles. Niagara Falls is located 20 miles north of the city [Fig. 1.1]. In 1900 Buffalo, with a large commercial and industrial base, was the eighth largest city in the United States.


Figure 1.2   Electric street lights
Figure 1.2 Electric street lights
Buffalo, the Queen City of the Lakes, was an up-to-date city at the end of the 19th century and electric lights were in the forefront.  "I went to the city to see the great sights and there I saw what they call ‘lectric lights. Now I think I know what I’m talking about ‘cuse they put them up in bottles and you can’t blow them out.”i [Fig. 1.2]
Figure 1.3   Arc light
Figure 1.3 Arc light

The earliest electric lights were arc lights.ii The electric discharge between two carbon or other type electrodes gave a brilliant light suitable for lighting streets, large stores and halls but not homes [Fig. 1.3].iii Arc lights for street lighting were usually on constant-current series circuits [Fig. 1.4].


Charles Brush was a pioneer in the development of arc lights [Fig. 1.5].iv In July 1881 the Brush

Figure 1.5   Charles Brush
Figure 1.5 Charles Brush
Figure 1.4   Arc light series circuit
Figure 1.4 Arc light series circuit
Electric Light Company of Buffalo installed the first electric plant in Buffalo on Ganson Street along the City’s waterfront [Fig. 1.6].v A 30-hp steam engine driving a generator with a capacity of forty 2,000-candlepower arc lamps supplied twelve carbon arc lights extending a mile along the street. In August a second station was built in the New York Central Railroad’s Chicago St. roundhouse supplying thirteen arc lights in the Exchange Street Depot [Fig. 1.7]. A third station was added in 1882 at Wilkeson and Mohawk Streets near the present City
Figure 1.6   Ganson Street
Figure 1.6 Ganson Street
Hall to extend arc lighting service to many other streets, churches, public meeting places, hotels and other business places [Fig. 1.8]. The Buffalo Electric Light and Power Company also had its machines installed at Brush’s Wilkeson Street Station. This location was used as an electric company station for 120 years.
Figure 1.8   Brush Electric Light Company of Buffalo
Figure 1.8 Brush Electric Light Company of Buffalo


Figure 1.7   New York Central Railroad Depot on Exchange St.
Figure 1.7 New York Central Railroad Depot on Exchange St.

In October 1881 the United States Electric Lighting Company gave a lighting exhibition in a factory building at 296 Washington Street and installed ten lamps in the J. N. Adams store in November. In 1883 this company placed two direct current machines in Brush’s Wilkeson Street Station for the first incandescent lamps

Figure 1.9   Edison and his carbon filament incandescent lamp
Figure 1.9 Edison and his carbon filament incandescent lamp
installed in Buffalo.vi Edison had developed the first practical electric incandescent lamp four years earlier [Fig. 1.9].


Figure 1.10   United States Electric Light & Power Company
Figure 1.10 United States Electric Light & Power Company
Other companies joined the lighting rush. In 1885, the United States Electric Light and Power Company of Buffalo had a plant for arc lighting in the Black Rock section of the City [Fig. 1.10].vii In 1887, the Thomson-Houston Light and Power Company of Buffalo had a plant for arc lighting located on Effner Street and later moved downtown to 40 Court Street.viii
Figure 1.11   Buffalo General Electric Company formation
Figure 1.11 Buffalo General Electric Company formation


The Buffalo General Electric Company was formed August 1, 1892 as a consolidation of the Brush Electric Light Company of Buffalo and the Thomson-Houston Electric Light and Power Company of Buffalo, which had combined with two of the previously mentioned companies [Fig. 1.11].ix

Next: Part 2 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Advent of Alternating Current

References

i. A ditty repeated in the author’s youth by his father Harry Woodworth (1893-1970).

ii. “Engineering the Electric Century: Arc lights create first surge of demand for electricity on large scale,” Electrical World, March 15, 1973: 30-31.

iii. Alfred Morgan, First Electrical Book for Boys (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1940), 128.

iv. “Giants of the Electric Century 1874-1974: Charles Francis Brush, Pioneer of electric arc lighting” Electrical World, May 1, 1973: 35.

v. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. The Niagara Mohawk Story (1823-1983): A Reference Manual of 160 Years of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and its Predecessor and Associated Companies, 2d ed. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Syracuse, NY, 1983, mimeographed), 67-69.

vi. Niagara Mohawk Story, 73.

vii. Niagara Mohawk Story, 71.

viii. Niagara Mohawk Story, 71.

ix. Niagara Mohawk Story, 75.