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Early Electrification of Buffalo: Niagara Falls Water Diversion Limitations Result in Steam Station Construction

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The diversion of water from Niagara Falls by the two power companies on the American side and four companies on the Canadian side became an environmental issue. [[Image:09-136 Water Diversion Limits.GIF|thumb|right]]In 1906 Congress passed the Burton Act that limited the amount of water the American plants could divert from the Niagara River above the Falls and [[Image:09-137 Import Limits from Canada.GIF|thumb|left]]limited the amount of power that could be imported from the Canadian plants. A 1910 treaty with Great Britain essentially reinforced these limits.<sup>i</sup> In order to increase efficiency, the original double runner turbines in Niagara Falls Power Co. Power House 1 were replaced between 1910 and 1913 with Francis inward flow turbines and draft tubes.<sup>ii</sup> In the 1920’s the generators in Power House 1 were rewound for three phase 12,000 V.<sup>iii</sup>  
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<p>This is Part 9 of a 14 part series </p>
  
[[Image:09-138 General Electric River Station croppd.GIF|thumb|right|Buffalo General Electric River Station]]  
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<p>Previous: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Early Power Company Interconnections|Part 8 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Early Power Company Interconnections]]</p>
  
<br>  
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<p>The diversion of water from Niagara Falls by the two power companies on the American side and four companies on the Canadian side became an environmental issue. </p>
  
With increased demand for power and no more available from Niagara Falls, Buffalo General Electric started construction in January 1916 of a coal fired steam generating station on the Niagara River about a mile north of the City of Buffalo. [[Image:09-139 Charles Huntley cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Charles R. Huntley (1853-1926) President, Buffalo General Electric Co.]]Originally called the River Station it was renamed the ‘Charles R. Huntley Station’ in 1926 following the death of the Buffalo General Electric president.<sup>iv</sup>  
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<p>[[Image:09-136 Water Diversion Limits.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 9.1  Water Diversion Limits for American Plants]] </p>
  
[[Image:09-140 Charles Huntley.GIF|thumb|right]]  
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<p>In 1906 Congress passed the Burton Act that limited the amount of water the American plants could divert from the Niagara River above the Falls [Fig. 9.1]and [[Image:09-137 Import Limits from Canada.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 9.2  Limits on Power Imports from Canadian Planys]]limited the amount of power that could be imported from the Canadian plants [Fig. 9.2]. A 1910 treaty with Great Britain essentially reinforced these limits.<sup>i</sup> In order to increase efficiency, the original double runner turbines in Niagara Falls Power Co. Power House 1 were replaced between 1910 and 1913 with Francis inward flow turbines and draft tubes.<sup>ii</sup> In the 1920’s the [[Generators|generators]] in Power House 1 were rewound for three phase 12,000 V.<sup>iii</sup> </p>
  
<br>  
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<p>[[Image:09-138 General Electric River Station croppd.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 9.3  Buffalo General Electric River Station]] </p>
  
The plant initially consisted of three 20,000-kW, 25-Hz, 12,000-V, 90% power factor generators placed in service in November 1916 and February and March 1917. The 1500-rpm steam turbines operated at 250 pounds-per-square-inch and 675 degrees F. There were eight stoker-fired boilers and two smokestacks. All the auxiliaries were steam operated; the fans and pumps by turbines, and the stokers by reciprocating engines. A kilowatt-hour of electricity required approximately 2.2 pounds of coal. Modern power plants require less than three-quarters of a pound of coal per kilowatt-hour. [[Image:09-141 switchboard panels cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Switchboard Panels 3/13/1917]]This shows the main and auxiliary switchboard panels. The plant was connected to Terminal House A by multiple three-conductor paper-insulated lead-covered cables.
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<p><br> </p>
  
<br>  
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<p>With increased demand for power and no more available from Niagara Falls, Buffalo General Electric started construction in January 1916 of a coal fired steam generating station on the Niagara River about a mile north of the City of Buffalo [Fig 9.3]. </p>
  
I worked at Huntley the summer of 1952 and had the Company photographer [[Image:09-142 turbine plaque.GIF|thumb|right]]take this photo of the turbine nameplate on Unit 1. I thought the phrase “Licensed to be used for all purposes except as a prime mover for marine and aerial craft” was quite amusing.  
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<p>[[Image:09-139 Charles Huntley cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 9.4  Charles R. Huntley (1853-1926) President, Buffalo General Electric Co.]] </p>
  
Over the years as the load increased additional units were added:
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<p>Originally called the River Station it was renamed the ‘Charles R. Huntley Station’ in 1926 following the death of the Buffalo General Electric president [Fig. 9.4].<sup>iv</sup> </p>
  
Unit 4 35,000 kW 90% pf December 1919
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<p>[[Image:09-140 Charles Huntley.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 9.5  Huntley Station Interior 4/7/1917]] </p>
  
Unit 5 60,000 kW 90% pf November 1926
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<p><br> </p>
  
Unit 6 75,000 kW 90% pf November 1928
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<p>The plant initially consisted of three 20,000-kW, 25-Hz, 12,000-V, 90% power factor generators placed in service in November 1916 and February and March 1917. The 1500-rpm steam turbines operated at 250 pounds-per-square-inch and 675 degrees F [Fig. 9.5]. There were eight stoker-fired boilers and two smokestacks. All the auxiliaries were steam operated; the fans and pumps by turbines, and the stokers by reciprocating engines. A kilowatt-hour of electricity required approximately 2.2 pounds of coal. Modern power plants require less than three-quarters of a pound of coal per kilowatt-hour. </p>
  
Unit 7 75,000 kW 80% pf August 1930
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<p>[[Image:09-141 switchboard panels cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 9.6  Switchboard Panels 3/13/1917]] </p>
  
<br>  
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<p>Figure 9.6 shows the main and auxiliary switchboard panels. The plant was connected to Terminal House A by multiple three-conductor paper-insulated lead-covered cables. </p>
  
[[Image:09-144 Huntley 7 units cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Huntley with Seven 25 Hz units]]Four more stoker-fired boilers and an additional stack were added for Unit 4. Ten boilers and three more stacks were added for Units 5, 6 and 7. These ten boilers burned pulverized coal and were more efficient than the stoker-fired boilers; however all boilers fed a common header and steam conditions for all turbines remained at 250 pounds-per-square-inch and 675 degrees F.<sup>v</sup>  
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<p><br> [[Image:09-142 turbine plaque.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 9.7  Turbine Nameplate]] </p>
  
<br>  
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<p>The author&nbsp;worked at Huntley the summer of 1952 and had the Company photographer take this photo of the turbine nameplate on Unit 1.&nbsp;He thought the phrase “Licensed to be used for all purposes except as a prime mover for marine and aerial craft” was quite amusing [Fig. 9.7]. </p>
  
In 1917 during the World War, a power shortage caused by restrictions on the export of power from Canada required the International Railway Company to curtail trolley service on the Niagara Frontier. To alleviate the shortage the IRC installed a second hand steam turbine with a 5,500-kW 3-phase 25-Hz 11,000-V generator at its steam plant.<sup>vi</sup> In November 1921 the increased supply of power permitted the IRC to shut down their steam plant.<sup>vii</sup>  
+
<p>Over the years as the load increased additional units were added: </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Unit 4 35,000 kW 90% pf December 1919 </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Unit 5 60,000 kW 90% pf November 1926 </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Unit 6 75,000 kW 90% pf November 1928 </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Unit 7 75,000 kW 80% pf August 1930 </p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br> </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>[[Image:09-144 Huntley 7 units cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 9.8  Huntley with Seven 25 Hz units]] </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>Four more stoker-fired boilers and an additional stack were added for Unit 4. Ten boilers and three more stacks were added for Units 5, 6 and 7 [Fig. 9.8]. These ten boilers burned pulverized coal and were more efficient than the stoker-fired boilers; however all boilers fed a common header and steam conditions for all turbines remained at 250 pounds-per-square-inch and 675 degrees F.<sup>v</sup> </p>
 +
 
 +
<p><br> </p>
 +
 
 +
<p>In 1917 during the World War, a power shortage caused by restrictions on the export of power from Canada required the International Railway Company to curtail trolley service on the Niagara Frontier. To alleviate the shortage the IRC installed a second hand steam turbine with a 5,500-kW 3-phase 25-Hz 11,000-V generator at its steam plant.<sup>vi</sup> In November 1921 the increased supply of power permitted the IRC to shut down their steam plant.<sup>vii</sup> </p>
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<p>Next: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency|Part 10 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency]] </p>
  
 
== References<sup></sup><br>  ==
 
== References<sup></sup><br>  ==
  
i. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 1:211, 215.<br>  
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<p>i. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 1:211, 215.<br> </p>
  
ii. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 2:125, 439, 455.<br>  
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<p>ii. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 2:125, 439, 455.<br> </p>
  
iii. Ibid., 419.<br>  
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<p>iii. Ibid., 419.<br> </p>
  
iv. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 1:349. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 77-78.<br>  
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<p>iv. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 1:349. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 77-78.<br> </p>
  
v. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 77-79. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, “Basic Data on Power Supply” (Internal Correspondence, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Syracuse, NY, 31 December 1950). Herbert Zangler, compiler, “Chronological History and General Description of Huntley Steam Station #1, Buffalo General Electric Company” (19 December 1939, photocopy [author suspects this was prepared for a Public Service Commission case]). <br>  
+
<p>v. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 77-79. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, “Basic Data on Power Supply” (Internal Correspondence, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Syracuse, NY, 31 December 1950). Herbert Zangler, compiler, “Chronological History and General Description of Huntley Steam Station #1, Buffalo General Electric Company” (19 December 1939, photocopy [author suspects this was prepared for a Public Service Commission case]). <br> </p>
  
vi. William R. Gordon, ''90 Years of Buffalo Railways, 1860-1950 ''(Buffalo, NY: International Railway Company, 1970), 103.  
+
<p>vi. William R. Gordon, ''90 Years of Buffalo Railways, 1860-1950 ''(Buffalo, NY: International Railway Company, 1970), 103. </p>
  
vii. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 79.<br><br><br>  
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<p>vii. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 79.<br><br><br> </p>
  
[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_application|Category:Power,_energy_&amp;_industry_application]] [[Category:Power_systems]] [[Category:Electric_power_systems]]
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<p></p>
  
[[Category:Power%2C_energy_%26_industry_application]]
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<p>[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_application|Category:Power,_energy_&amp;_industry_application]] [[Category:Power_systems]] [[Category:Electric_power_systems]] [[Category:Power_engineering]] [[Category:Electrification]]</p>
[[Category:Power_engineering]]
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[[Category:Electrification]]
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Revision as of 17:28, 11 June 2010

This is Part 9 of a 14 part series

Previous: Part 8 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Early Power Company Interconnections

The diversion of water from Niagara Falls by the two power companies on the American side and four companies on the Canadian side became an environmental issue.

Figure 9.1   Water Diversion Limits for American Plants
Figure 9.1 Water Diversion Limits for American Plants

In 1906 Congress passed the Burton Act that limited the amount of water the American plants could divert from the Niagara River above the Falls [Fig. 9.1]and

Figure 9.2   Limits on Power Imports from Canadian Planys
Figure 9.2 Limits on Power Imports from Canadian Planys
limited the amount of power that could be imported from the Canadian plants [Fig. 9.2]. A 1910 treaty with Great Britain essentially reinforced these limits.i In order to increase efficiency, the original double runner turbines in Niagara Falls Power Co. Power House 1 were replaced between 1910 and 1913 with Francis inward flow turbines and draft tubes.ii In the 1920’s the generators in Power House 1 were rewound for three phase 12,000 V.iii

Figure 9.3   Buffalo General Electric River Station
Figure 9.3 Buffalo General Electric River Station


With increased demand for power and no more available from Niagara Falls, Buffalo General Electric started construction in January 1916 of a coal fired steam generating station on the Niagara River about a mile north of the City of Buffalo [Fig 9.3].

Figure 9.4   Charles R. Huntley (1853-1926) President, Buffalo General Electric Co.
Figure 9.4 Charles R. Huntley (1853-1926) President, Buffalo General Electric Co.

Originally called the River Station it was renamed the ‘Charles R. Huntley Station’ in 1926 following the death of the Buffalo General Electric president [Fig. 9.4].iv

Figure 9.5  Huntley Station Interior 4/7/1917
Figure 9.5 Huntley Station Interior 4/7/1917


The plant initially consisted of three 20,000-kW, 25-Hz, 12,000-V, 90% power factor generators placed in service in November 1916 and February and March 1917. The 1500-rpm steam turbines operated at 250 pounds-per-square-inch and 675 degrees F [Fig. 9.5]. There were eight stoker-fired boilers and two smokestacks. All the auxiliaries were steam operated; the fans and pumps by turbines, and the stokers by reciprocating engines. A kilowatt-hour of electricity required approximately 2.2 pounds of coal. Modern power plants require less than three-quarters of a pound of coal per kilowatt-hour.

Figure 9.6   Switchboard Panels 3/13/1917
Figure 9.6 Switchboard Panels 3/13/1917

Figure 9.6 shows the main and auxiliary switchboard panels. The plant was connected to Terminal House A by multiple three-conductor paper-insulated lead-covered cables.


Figure 9.7   Turbine Nameplate
Figure 9.7 Turbine Nameplate

The author worked at Huntley the summer of 1952 and had the Company photographer take this photo of the turbine nameplate on Unit 1. He thought the phrase “Licensed to be used for all purposes except as a prime mover for marine and aerial craft” was quite amusing [Fig. 9.7].

Over the years as the load increased additional units were added:

Unit 4 35,000 kW 90% pf December 1919

Unit 5 60,000 kW 90% pf November 1926

Unit 6 75,000 kW 90% pf November 1928

Unit 7 75,000 kW 80% pf August 1930


Figure 9.8   Huntley with Seven 25 Hz units
Figure 9.8 Huntley with Seven 25 Hz units

Four more stoker-fired boilers and an additional stack were added for Unit 4. Ten boilers and three more stacks were added for Units 5, 6 and 7 [Fig. 9.8]. These ten boilers burned pulverized coal and were more efficient than the stoker-fired boilers; however all boilers fed a common header and steam conditions for all turbines remained at 250 pounds-per-square-inch and 675 degrees F.v


In 1917 during the World War, a power shortage caused by restrictions on the export of power from Canada required the International Railway Company to curtail trolley service on the Niagara Frontier. To alleviate the shortage the IRC installed a second hand steam turbine with a 5,500-kW 3-phase 25-Hz 11,000-V generator at its steam plant.vi In November 1921 the increased supply of power permitted the IRC to shut down their steam plant.vii

Next: Part 10 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency

References

i. Adams, Niagara Power, 1:211, 215.

ii. Adams, Niagara Power, 2:125, 439, 455.

iii. Ibid., 419.

iv. Adams, Niagara Power, 1:349. Niagara Mohawk Story, 77-78.

v. Niagara Mohawk Story, 77-79. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, “Basic Data on Power Supply” (Internal Correspondence, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Syracuse, NY, 31 December 1950). Herbert Zangler, compiler, “Chronological History and General Description of Huntley Steam Station #1, Buffalo General Electric Company” (19 December 1939, photocopy [author suspects this was prepared for a Public Service Commission case]).

vi. William R. Gordon, 90 Years of Buffalo Railways, 1860-1950 (Buffalo, NY: International Railway Company, 1970), 103.

vii. Niagara Mohawk Story, 79.