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Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency

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In early 1918 the Federal Government determined that conditions resulting from the World War and the national welfare required utilization of waters diverted from the Niagara River at an increased efficiency. 145 [[Image:10-145_merger.GIF|thumb|right]]The plan required the consolidation of the two power companies and a Niagara Falls distribution company in October to form The Niagara Falls Power Company (1918).  
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<p>This is Part 10 of a 14 part series. </p>
  
146 [[Image:10-146_Hydraulic_Power_Map.GIF|thumb|left]]The Hydraulic Power Company (Schoellkopf interests) and its predecessor had leased water to industries on the riverbank and supplied mechanical and electrical power to Niagara Falls customers for many years. Over the years the Hydraulic Canal had been widened to 100 feet and additional hydroelectric stations added. 147 [[Image:10-147_Hydraulic_Power_Co._Stations_cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Hydraulic Power Co. Stations]]In 1918 Hydraulic Power had in operation its Stations 2 and 3. Station 2 was started in 1895 and completed in 1904. It had 19 units totaling about 34,000-hp. Station 3 was started about 1904 and completed in 1914. It had thirteen 10,000-hp turbines with horizontal shafts driving generators. 148 [[Image:10-148_power_station_interior.GIF|thumb|left]]The power company owned eight 12,000-V 25-Hz generators like the ones in the foreground. Five turbines at the far end of the station each drove two dc generators owned by the Aluminum Company of America; thus the power company continued to sell mechanical horsepower.
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<p>Previous: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Niagara Falls Water Diversion Limitations Result in Steam Station Construction|Part 9 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Niagara Falls Water Diversion Limitations Result in Steam Station Construction]]</p>
  
In January 1917, the War Department issued a permit to the Hydraulic Power Company to increase the authorized diversion from the Niagara River for power purposes from 6,500 cubic-feet-per-second to 8,785-c.f.s. 149 Construction was started on Station 3B with three vertical 37,500-hp turbine-generator units which were completed in 1920. Hydraulic Power Company turbines used a head of 210 feet whereas Niagara Falls Power turbines used a head of only 140 feet due to the slope of the tailrace tunnel. Following the consolidation of the companies, the original Niagara Falls Power Houses 1 and 2 were renamed Adams Stations 1 and 2 and the Hydraulic Power Stations 3A and 3B were renamed Schoellkopf Stations 3A and 3B.[[Image:10-150_Schoellkopf_station_cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Schoellkopf Stations (3A, 3B, 3C from left to right indicated by arrows)]]  
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<p>[[Image:10-145 merger.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 10.1  Hydroelectric Companies Reorganization]] </p>
  
Following the March 1921 issuance of Federal Power Commission License No. 1 to divert 20,000 c.f.s. for 50 years, the consolidated Niagara Falls Power Company 150 proceeded with the installation of three 70,000-hp units in Station 3C at the Schoellkopf site. The units were placed in service in 1924. Because it was impractical to enlarge the Hydraulic Canal, Station 3C units were furnished with water from a pressure tunnel. 151 [[Image:10-151_power_station_interior.GIF|thumb|left]]Station 3C generators are in the foreground and Station 3B generators are in the background. Adams Stations 1 &amp; 2 were shut down and placed in reserve.  
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<p>In early 1918 the Federal Government determined that conditions resulting from the World War and the national welfare required utilization of waters diverted from the Niagara River at an increased efficiency. The plan required the consolidation of the two power companies and a Niagara Falls distribution company in October to form The Niagara Falls Power Company (1918) [Fig. 10.1].<sup>i</sup> </p>
  
152 [[Image:10-152_Grand_Island_Transmission_Lines.GIF|thumb|right]]In 1923 power from Schoellkopf was sent across Grand Island to Buffalo by a double circuit 60,000-V line with 500,000-cmil copper conductors supported by steel towers. Transformation from 60,000 V to 22 000-V was at Terminal Station C located adjacent to the Huntley Station. Underground cables connected Terminal Station C to Terminal House A. This brought Schoellkopf power to Buffalo. 22,000-V underground cables were installed to distribution stations and customers in the northern section of the City to convert them to 22,000 V.
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<p>[[Image:10-146 Hydraulic Power Map.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 10.2  Hydraulic Power Company Location]] </p>
  
It would appear that a change to 22,000 V had been contemplated for some time. 153 [[Image:10-153_transformer_nameplate_cropped.GIF|thumb|left|2810-kVA Transformer Nameplate (Voltage Rating 1150/19920Y/23000-2400/4150Y)]]The nameplate on a three-phase water-cooled 2810-kVA transformer in service at Station 12 until 2006 has a patent date of 1918. The high voltage windings can be connected 11,500delta, 19,920Y or 23,000delta. The low voltage windings can be connected 2400delta or 4150Y. It is interesting to note that some of the cables suitable for the 11,000-V ungrounded system were cut over to the 22,000-V grounded neutral system and operated satisfactorily for almost 50 years.
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<p>[[Image:10-147 Hydraulic Power Co. Stations cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 10.3  Hydraulic Power Co. Station 3 (left arrow) and Station 2  (right arrow) (1918)]] </p>
  
<br> <pageby nominor="false" comments="false"></pageby>;
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<p>[[Image:10-148 power station interior.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 10.4  Station 3 Interior]] </p>
  
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<p>The Hydraulic Power Company (Schoellkopf interests) and its predecessor had leased water to industries on the riverbank and supplied mechanical and electrical power to Niagara Falls customers for many years. Over the years the Hydraulic Canal had been widened to 100 feet and additional hydroelectric stations added.<sup>ii</sup> In 1918 Hydraulic Power had in operation its Stations 2 and 3 [Fig 10.3]. Station 2 was started in 1895 and completed in 1904. It had 19 units totaling about 34,000-hp. Station 3 was started about 1904 and completed in 1914. It had thirteen 10,000-hp turbines with horizontal shafts driving [[Generators|generators]]. The power company owned eight 12,000-V 25-Hz generators like the ones in the foreground of Figure 10.3. Five turbines at the far end of the station each drove two dc generators owned by the Aluminum Company of America; thus the power company continued to sell mechanical horsepower.<sup>iii</sup> </p>
  
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<p>[[Image:10-150 Schoellkopf station cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 10.5   Schoellkopf Stations (3A, 3B, 3C from left to right indicated by arrows)]] </p>
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[[Category:Power%2C_energy_%26_industry_application]]
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<p>In January 1917, the War Department issued a permit to the Hydraulic Power Company to increase the authorized diversion from the Niagara River for power purposes from 6,500 cubic-feet-per-second to 8,785-c.f.s.<sup>iv</sup> Construction was started on Station 3B with three vertical 37,500-hp turbine-generator units which were completed in 1920. Hydraulic Power Company turbines used a head of 210 feet whereas Niagara Falls Power turbines used a head of only 140 feet due to the slope of the tailrace tunnel.<sup>v</sup> Following the consolidation of the companies, the original Niagara Falls Power Houses 1 and 2 were renamed Adams Stations 1 and 2 and the Hydraulic Power Stations 3A and 3B were renamed Schoellkopf Stations 3A and 3B. <br> </p>
[[Category:Power_systems]]
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[[Category:Electric_power_systems]]
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<p>[[Image:10-151 power station interior.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 10.6  Station 3C Generators (in foreground) Station 3B Generators (in background)]] </p>
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<p>Following the March 1921 issuance of Federal Power Commission License No. 1 to divert 20,000 c.f.s. for 50 years, the consolidated Niagara Falls Power Company proceeded with the installation of three 70,000-hp units in Station 3C at the Schoellkopf site. The units were placed in service in 1924. Because it was impractical to enlarge the Hydraulic Canal, Station 3C units were furnished with water from a pressure tunnel. Figure 10.6 shows Station 3C generators in the foreground and Station 3B generators in the background. Adams Stations 1 &amp; 2 were shut down and placed in reserve.<sup>vi</sup> </p>
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<p>[[Image:10-152 Grand Island Transmission Lines.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 10.7  60,000 V Niagara to Buffalo Transmission Line (N. Falls to Grand Island Niagara River Crossing)]] </p>
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<p><br> </p>
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<p>[[Image:10-153 transformer nameplate cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 10.8  2810-kVA Transformer Nameplate (Voltage Rating 1150/19920Y/23000-2400/4150Y)]] </p>
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<p>In 1923 power from Schoellkopf was sent across Grand Island to Buffalo by a double circuit 60,000-V line with 500,000-cmil copper conductors supported by steel towers Fig. 10.7]. Transformation from 60,000 V to 22 000-V was at Terminal Station C located adjacent to the Huntley Station. Underground cables connected Terminal Station C to Terminal House A.<sup>vii</sup> This brought Schoellkopf power to Buffalo. 22,000-V underground cables were installed to distribution stations and customers in the northern section of the City to convert them to 22,000 V. </p>
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<p><br> </p>
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<p>It would appear that a change to 22,000 V had been contemplated for some time. The nameplate on a three-phase water-cooled 2810-kVA transformer in service at Station 12 until 2006 has a patent date of 1918 [Fig. 10.8]. The high voltage windings can be connected 11,500delta, 19,920Y or 23,000delta. The low voltage windings can be connected 2400delta or 4150Y.<sup>viii</sup> It is interesting to note that some of the cables suitable for the 11,000-V ungrounded system were cut over to the 22,000-V grounded neutral system and operated satisfactorily for almost 50 years.<sup>ix</sup> </p>
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<p>Next: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service available in Buffalo|Part 11 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service Available in Buffalo]] </p>
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== References<br>  ==
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<p>i. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 41. </p>
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<p>ii. Ibid., 25. </p>
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<p>iii. Ibid., 25-26. </p>
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<p>iv. Ibid., 29. </p>
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<p>v. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 2:109. </p>
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<p>vi. ''Niagara Mohawk Story'', 43. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 2:293. </p>
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<p>vii. Ibid., 293. “Happenings” (An Annual Log from the Electric Operations Department, Buffalo General Electric Company, 1923, photocopy). “Power Company Opens New Unit on River Road,” ''The Riverside Review'',7 February, 1923. </p>
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<p>viii. Author’s 35 mm slide taken 13 November 2002. </p>
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<p>ix. Cable Department Manhole View Records for Cable between Terminals B and C, (Records dated 1955, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Buffalo, NY, n.d.).<br><br> </p>
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<p></p>
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<p>[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_applications|Category:Power,_energy_&amp;_industry_application]] [[Category:Power_systems]] [[Category:Electric_power_systems]]</p>

Latest revision as of 14:10, 13 November 2013

This is Part 10 of a 14 part series.

Previous: Part 9 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Niagara Falls Water Diversion Limitations Result in Steam Station Construction

Figure 10.1   Hydroelectric Companies Reorganization
Figure 10.1 Hydroelectric Companies Reorganization

In early 1918 the Federal Government determined that conditions resulting from the World War and the national welfare required utilization of waters diverted from the Niagara River at an increased efficiency. The plan required the consolidation of the two power companies and a Niagara Falls distribution company in October to form The Niagara Falls Power Company (1918) [Fig. 10.1].i

Figure 10.2  Hydraulic Power Company Location
Figure 10.2 Hydraulic Power Company Location

Figure 10.3   Hydraulic Power Co. Station 3 (left arrow) and Station 2  (right arrow) (1918)
Figure 10.3 Hydraulic Power Co. Station 3 (left arrow) and Station 2 (right arrow) (1918)

Figure 10.4   Station 3 Interior
Figure 10.4 Station 3 Interior

The Hydraulic Power Company (Schoellkopf interests) and its predecessor had leased water to industries on the riverbank and supplied mechanical and electrical power to Niagara Falls customers for many years. Over the years the Hydraulic Canal had been widened to 100 feet and additional hydroelectric stations added.ii In 1918 Hydraulic Power had in operation its Stations 2 and 3 [Fig 10.3]. Station 2 was started in 1895 and completed in 1904. It had 19 units totaling about 34,000-hp. Station 3 was started about 1904 and completed in 1914. It had thirteen 10,000-hp turbines with horizontal shafts driving generators. The power company owned eight 12,000-V 25-Hz generators like the ones in the foreground of Figure 10.3. Five turbines at the far end of the station each drove two dc generators owned by the Aluminum Company of America; thus the power company continued to sell mechanical horsepower.iii


Figure 10.5   Schoellkopf Stations (3A, 3B, 3C from left to right indicated by arrows)
Figure 10.5 Schoellkopf Stations (3A, 3B, 3C from left to right indicated by arrows)

In January 1917, the War Department issued a permit to the Hydraulic Power Company to increase the authorized diversion from the Niagara River for power purposes from 6,500 cubic-feet-per-second to 8,785-c.f.s.iv Construction was started on Station 3B with three vertical 37,500-hp turbine-generator units which were completed in 1920. Hydraulic Power Company turbines used a head of 210 feet whereas Niagara Falls Power turbines used a head of only 140 feet due to the slope of the tailrace tunnel.v Following the consolidation of the companies, the original Niagara Falls Power Houses 1 and 2 were renamed Adams Stations 1 and 2 and the Hydraulic Power Stations 3A and 3B were renamed Schoellkopf Stations 3A and 3B.

Figure 10.6   Station 3C Generators (in foreground) Station 3B Generators (in background)
Figure 10.6 Station 3C Generators (in foreground) Station 3B Generators (in background)

Following the March 1921 issuance of Federal Power Commission License No. 1 to divert 20,000 c.f.s. for 50 years, the consolidated Niagara Falls Power Company proceeded with the installation of three 70,000-hp units in Station 3C at the Schoellkopf site. The units were placed in service in 1924. Because it was impractical to enlarge the Hydraulic Canal, Station 3C units were furnished with water from a pressure tunnel. Figure 10.6 shows Station 3C generators in the foreground and Station 3B generators in the background. Adams Stations 1 & 2 were shut down and placed in reserve.vi

Figure 10.7   60,000 V Niagara to Buffalo Transmission Line (N. Falls to Grand Island Niagara River Crossing)
Figure 10.7 60,000 V Niagara to Buffalo Transmission Line (N. Falls to Grand Island Niagara River Crossing)


Figure 10.8   2810-kVA Transformer Nameplate (Voltage Rating 1150/19920Y/23000-2400/4150Y)
Figure 10.8 2810-kVA Transformer Nameplate (Voltage Rating 1150/19920Y/23000-2400/4150Y)

In 1923 power from Schoellkopf was sent across Grand Island to Buffalo by a double circuit 60,000-V line with 500,000-cmil copper conductors supported by steel towers Fig. 10.7]. Transformation from 60,000 V to 22 000-V was at Terminal Station C located adjacent to the Huntley Station. Underground cables connected Terminal Station C to Terminal House A.vii This brought Schoellkopf power to Buffalo. 22,000-V underground cables were installed to distribution stations and customers in the northern section of the City to convert them to 22,000 V.


It would appear that a change to 22,000 V had been contemplated for some time. The nameplate on a three-phase water-cooled 2810-kVA transformer in service at Station 12 until 2006 has a patent date of 1918 [Fig. 10.8]. The high voltage windings can be connected 11,500delta, 19,920Y or 23,000delta. The low voltage windings can be connected 2400delta or 4150Y.viii It is interesting to note that some of the cables suitable for the 11,000-V ungrounded system were cut over to the 22,000-V grounded neutral system and operated satisfactorily for almost 50 years.ix

Next: Part 11 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service Available in Buffalo

References

i. Niagara Mohawk Story, 41.

ii. Ibid., 25.

iii. Ibid., 25-26.

iv. Ibid., 29.

v. Adams, Niagara Power, 2:109.

vi. Niagara Mohawk Story, 43. Adams, Niagara Power, 2:293.

vii. Ibid., 293. “Happenings” (An Annual Log from the Electric Operations Department, Buffalo General Electric Company, 1923, photocopy). “Power Company Opens New Unit on River Road,” The Riverside Review,7 February, 1923.

viii. Author’s 35 mm slide taken 13 November 2002.

ix. Cable Department Manhole View Records for Cable between Terminals B and C, (Records dated 1955, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, Buffalo, NY, n.d.).