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Early Electrification of Buffalo: 60-Hz Replaces 25-Hz

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This is Part 12 of a 14 part series.[[Image:13-171 25-60hz slide 1 cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 12.1  Graph of 25-Hz & 60 Hz Load]]   
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<p>This is Part 12 of a 14 part series.[[Image:13-171 25-60hz slide 1 cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 12.1  Niagara Mohawk- Western Division  Graph of 25-Hz & 60 Hz Load]]&nbsp; </p>
  
This brings us up to 1930 when another great event took place, the start of the 60-Hz system in Western New York and the conversion from 25-Hz to 60-Hz. As outlined below, the conversion in Buffalo took 76 years [Fig 12.1]. (Refer to the two-part article '25-Hz at Niagara Falls - end of an era on the Niagara Frontier' in the Jan/Feb and Mar/Apr 2008 issues of IEEE ''Power&amp; Energy'' magazine; author’s recollections.)
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<p>Previous: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service available in Buffalo|Part 11 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service available in Buffalo]]</p>
  
[[Image:13-172 25-60hz slide 2 cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 12.2  1947 - No New 25-Hz Customers]]
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<p>This brings us up to 1930 when another great event took place, the start of the 60-Hz system in Western New York and the conversion from 25-Hz to 60-Hz. As outlined below, the conversion in Buffalo took 76 years [Fig 12.1]. (Refer to the two-part article '25-Hz at Niagara Falls - end of an era on the Niagara Frontier' in the Jan/Feb and Mar/Apr 2008 issues of IEEE ''Power&amp; Energy'' magazine; author’s recollections.) </p>
  
1947 - The beginning of end of the 25-Hz system when the company announced no new 25-hz customers Fig. 12.2]. In 1949 the last arc lights were discontinued. They were on Main Street in downtown Buffalo.<sup>i</sup>  
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<p>[[Image:13-172 25-60hz slide 2 cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 12.2   1947 - No New 25-Hz Customers]] </p>
  
[[Image:13-173 25-60hz slide 3 cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure12.3  1952 - Niagara Mohawk Western Division 60-Hz Peak Exceeds the 25-Hz Peak]]  
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<p>1947 - The beginning of end of the 25-Hz system when the company announced no new 25-hz customers [Fig. 12.2]. In 1949 the last [[Arc Lighting|arc lights]] were discontinued. They were on Main Street in downtown Buffalo.<sup>i</sup> </p>
  
1952 - Western Division 60-Hz peak load exceeded the 25-Hz peak load [Fig12.3]. In 1956 the Buffalo downtown dc Edison System was shut down.
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<p>[[Image:13-173 25-60hz slide 3 cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure12.3  1952 - Niagara Mohawk Western Division 60-Hz Peak Exceeds the 25-Hz Peak]] </p>
  
[[Image:13-174 25-60hz slide 4 cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 12.1956 - Schoellkopf Disaster]]
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<p>1952 - Western Division 60-Hz peak load exceeded the 25-Hz peak load [Fig12.3]. In 1956 the Buffalo downtown dc Edison System was shut down. </p>
  
1956 - Schoellkopf disaster which destroyed Stations 3B and 3C [Fig. 12.4]. 25 Hz was still available from other sources but at a higher cost. In the 1960’s the Shredded Wheat Company in Niagara Falls was the last two-phase four-wire customer.
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<p>[[Image:13-174 25-60hz slide 4 cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 12.4   1956 - Schoellkopf Disaster]] </p>
  
[[Image:13-175 25-60hz slide 5 cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 12.5  1998 - PSC Approves Elimination of 25-Hz]]
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<p>1956 - Schoellkopf disaster which destroyed Stations 3B and 3C [Fig. 12.4]. 25 Hz was still available from other sources but at a higher cost. In the 1960’s the Shredded Wheat Company in Niagara Falls was the last two-phase four-wire customer. </p>
  
1998 - New York Public service Commission approves the elimination of the 25-Hz system by December 31, 2007 [Fig. 12.5]. Customer contributions were required if repairs exceed $25,000. In 2002 the company initiated an incentive program that provided a limited matching grant to retrofit customer equipment for 60-Hz operation
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<p>[[Image:13-175 25-60hz slide 5 cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 12.5   1998 - PSC Approves Elimination of 25-Hz]] </p>
  
[[Image:13-176 25-60hz slide 6 cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 12.6  2006 - Downed Transmission Conductors End 25-Hz Service]]
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<p>1998 - New York Public service Commission approves the elimination of the 25-Hz system by December 31, 2007 [Fig. 12.5]. Customer contributions were required if repairs exceed $25,000. In 2002 the company initiated an incentive program that provided a limited matching grant to retrofit customer equipment for 60-Hz operation </p>
  
2006 - On October 12 at 8:53 pm, 66-kV transmission conductors came down during the ‘October Surprise’ snow storm. The five remaining customers elected not to contribute to the cost of repairs. Thus ended almost 110 years of 25-Hz service in Buffalo.
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<p>[[Image:13-176 25-60hz slide 6 cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 12.6  2006 - Downed Transmission Conductors End 25-Hz Service]] </p>
  
Next: Contributions of Five AIEE Presidents
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<p>2006 - On October 12 at 8:53 pm, 66-kV transmission conductors came down during the ‘October Surprise’ snow storm. The five remaining customers elected not to contribute to the cost of repairs. Thus ended almost 110 years of 25-Hz service in Buffalo [Fig. 12.6}. </p>
  
<br>
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<p>Next: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Contributions of Five AIEE Presidents|Part 13 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Contributions of Five AIEE Presidents]] </p>
  
== References<br> ==
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<p><br> </p>
  
i. Related to the author by Jack Pfohl NMP Electric Planner, ca. 1953. == <br><pageby nominor="false" comments="false"></pageby>;
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== References<br> ==
  
<br>
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<p>i. Related to the author by Jack Pfohl NMP Electric Planner, ca. 1953. == </p>
  
<br><br>
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<p></p>
  
[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_application|Category:Power,_energy_&amp;_industry_application]] [[Category:Power_systems]] [[Category:Electric_power_systems]] [[Category:Power_engineering]] [[Category:Electrification]]
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<p></p>
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<p></p>
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<p>[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_application|Category:Power,_energy_&amp;_industry_application]] [[Category:Power_systems]] [[Category:Electric_power_systems]] [[Category:Power_engineering]] [[Category:Electrification]]</p>

Revision as of 17:37, 11 June 2010

This is Part 12 of a 14 part series.

Figure 12.1   Niagara Mohawk- Western Division  Graph of 25-Hz & 60 Hz Load
Figure 12.1 Niagara Mohawk- Western Division Graph of 25-Hz & 60 Hz Load
 

Previous: Part 11 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service available in Buffalo

This brings us up to 1930 when another great event took place, the start of the 60-Hz system in Western New York and the conversion from 25-Hz to 60-Hz. As outlined below, the conversion in Buffalo took 76 years [Fig 12.1]. (Refer to the two-part article '25-Hz at Niagara Falls - end of an era on the Niagara Frontier' in the Jan/Feb and Mar/Apr 2008 issues of IEEE Power& Energy magazine; author’s recollections.)

Figure 12.2   1947 - No New 25-Hz Customers
Figure 12.2 1947 - No New 25-Hz Customers

1947 - The beginning of end of the 25-Hz system when the company announced no new 25-hz customers [Fig. 12.2]. In 1949 the last arc lights were discontinued. They were on Main Street in downtown Buffalo.i

Figure12.3  1952 - Niagara Mohawk Western Division 60-Hz Peak Exceeds the 25-Hz Peak
Figure12.3 1952 - Niagara Mohawk Western Division 60-Hz Peak Exceeds the 25-Hz Peak

1952 - Western Division 60-Hz peak load exceeded the 25-Hz peak load [Fig12.3]. In 1956 the Buffalo downtown dc Edison System was shut down.

Figure 12.4   1956 - Schoellkopf Disaster
Figure 12.4 1956 - Schoellkopf Disaster

1956 - Schoellkopf disaster which destroyed Stations 3B and 3C [Fig. 12.4]. 25 Hz was still available from other sources but at a higher cost. In the 1960’s the Shredded Wheat Company in Niagara Falls was the last two-phase four-wire customer.

Figure 12.5   1998 - PSC Approves Elimination of 25-Hz
Figure 12.5 1998 - PSC Approves Elimination of 25-Hz

1998 - New York Public service Commission approves the elimination of the 25-Hz system by December 31, 2007 [Fig. 12.5]. Customer contributions were required if repairs exceed $25,000. In 2002 the company initiated an incentive program that provided a limited matching grant to retrofit customer equipment for 60-Hz operation

Figure 12.6   2006 - Downed Transmission Conductors End 25-Hz Service
Figure 12.6 2006 - Downed Transmission Conductors End 25-Hz Service

2006 - On October 12 at 8:53 pm, 66-kV transmission conductors came down during the ‘October Surprise’ snow storm. The five remaining customers elected not to contribute to the cost of repairs. Thus ended almost 110 years of 25-Hz service in Buffalo [Fig. 12.6}.

Next: Part 13 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Contributions of Five AIEE Presidents


References

i. Related to the author by Jack Pfohl NMP Electric Planner, ca. 1953. ==