Archives:Competitiveness and Electricity: Electricité de France Since 1946
French electricity's ability to be competitive must be examined in a very specific historical and institutional context. The French monopoly did not remain isolated from outside events. The top management of this public enterprise also thought in terms of competitiveness. They adapted the means of production to market conditions, at the same time respecting the obligations of a "public service." Moving from a period of scarce electricity to one of relative abundance, from a closed France to an open European market (1992), Electricite de France (EDF) was repeatedly led to change the way it marketed its product.
Alain Bertran, "Competitiveness and Electricity: Electricité de France Since 1946," in Technological Competitiveness: Contemporary and Historical Perspectives on Electrical, Electronics, and Computer Industries (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 1993), 315-325.
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