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Contents

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A HISTORY OF ELECTRONIC ENTERTAINMENT SINCE 1945

By David L. Morton

© 1999 by the IEEE History Center

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, not may it be stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form without written permission from the Publisher.

This monograph was supported in part by a generous grant from the IEEE Life Members Committee Design and layout by Anne Reifsnyder for Aries/PS

ISBN 0-7803-9936-6

IEEE History Center The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. and Rutgers - The State University of New Jersey 39 Union Street New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8538 732-932-1066 fax: 732-932-1193

A History of Electronic Entertainment

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Radio Broadcasting

INTRODUCTION 1 "Standard" Broadcasting, Wired Radio, and Short-wave 1 The Introduction of PM Service 4 PM in the United States 5 Stereo: PM Triumph and AM Frustration 7 Pirate Radio 8 Technical Change in Radio: The Impact of Television 9 The Tape Recorder in Studio Production 10 The Radio Receiver 12 The Transistor 13

Chapter 2 Television Broadcasting

INTRODUCTION 15 The Great International TV Standards Wars 15 Television Standards in the U .5. : The Dispute over UHF 19 Changes in Broadcasting Technologies: The Legacy of World War II 19 Transmitters and Transmission 20 National Differences in Television Broadcasting Techniques 21 Video Recording in the Television Studio 22 The Battle for Color TV in the U.S. 24 New Receiver Technologies 25 Television Receiver Production 26 Technological Alternatives to the Networks: Subscription and Cable Television 28 Another Alternative: Direct Satellite Television 28 Satellite TV and DBS in the U.S. 30 THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ASPECTS OF TELEVISION 31 Hollywood and Television 31 The Critique of the Mass Media 33

Chapter 3 Hi-Fi and the Entertainment Electronics Revolution

HIGH FIDELITY IN THE HOME 35 Setting the Stage for High Fidelity 35 The Introduction of Stereo Recordings 38 Home-Built Equipment 39 Tubes Versus Transistors 40 HOME RECORDING, THE WALKMAN, AND THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION 41 Home Magnetic Tape Recording 41 Piracy, Counterfeiting, and Bootlegging 46 Portable Audio Technologies 49 The Digital Revolution 50

Chapter 4 The Diversification of Home Entertainment Systems

HOME VIDEO 51 From Audio to Video Tape Recording 51 Format Wars: Beta Versus VHS 54 The VCR as an Alternative Form of Program Distribution 56 VIDEO GAMES 57