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Thumbnail descDate Name User Size Description Versions
20:51, 23 July 2014Eq2 FermiDiracStatisticalFormula.png (file)Administrator74 KB (Fermi-Dirac formula for calculating the distribution of identical fermions in a single-particle state, within a given system.)1
20:44, 23 July 2014Eq1 FermiStatisticalFormula-Original.png (file)Administrator719 KB (Enrico Fermi's original equation for calculating the distribution of identical particles, or fermions, in a given state.)1
20:36, 23 July 2014Fig2 3ElectronsEquiTriangleVertices.png (file)Administrator719 KB (Figure 2: Ideal system of three electrons at the vertexes of an equilateral triangle.)1
20:25, 23 July 2014Fig1 NuovoCimentoV1n1cover1924JanApr.png (file)Administrator7151 KB (Figure 1: Cover of the Italian scientific journal where Fermi published his preliminary work on quantum statistics in early 1924.)1
19:49, 19 March 2014Fig09-JobsMacworldCover1984.jpg (file)Administrator7353 KB (Fig. 9 Apple co-founder Steve Jobs introduced the Macintosh 128 on the cover of ''Macworld'''s debut issue in 1984; the machine popularized the handheld mouse controller and graphic user interface (GUI) for home users. Used with permission of Macworld ©2)1
19:27, 19 March 2014Fig08-PaulAllenBillGatesc1980 CHM102638091gray.jpg (file)Administrator71.22 MB (Figure 8: Paul Allen and Bill Gates, seen here c. 1980, founded Microsoft initially to build and market BASIC for microcomputers. They recognized the opportunity when IBM came to call, however, offering to produce an operating system for IBM’s first per)1
19:20, 19 March 2014Fig07-IBMPC-ChaplinAd1982.jpg (file)Administrator7203 KB (Figure 7: The IBM PC opened the door to corporate usage of microcomputers; its initial advertising, using a Charlie Chaplin impersonator, took the market by storm and its design was open to developers to build applications to a standard interface. Courtes)1
19:08, 19 March 2014Fig06-BricklinFrankstonVisiCalc c1982.JPG (file)Administrator71.05 MB (Figure 6: Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston conceived of, designed, and programmed VisiCalc, a highly innovative program that permitted the user to make changes in a spreadsheet and instantly see the impact on the financial model. Courtesy Dan Bricklin.)1
16:09, 19 March 2014Fig05-VAX11750Handbook-MarkWickens.jpg (file)Administrator7125 KB (Figure 5: Digital Equipment Corporation introduced its VAX (Virtual Address Extension) computer line and VMS (Virtual Memory System) operating system in 1977. By the mid-1980s, VAX had become the minicomputer standard and was the target machine for most m)1
18:19, 24 February 2014Table2-Top10PCRevenue.jpg (file)Administrator71.45 MB (Personal Computer software companies grew phenomenally during the 1980s through the 1990s. This table shows the top 10 PC software companies during four different years: 1983, 1987, 1991, and 1995. From Martin Campbell-Kelly, From Airline Reservations to)1
17:54, 24 February 2014Table1-Top10SWProductsRevenue.jpg (file)Administrator7693 KB (As of 1979 the 10 leading companies had revenues between $5 million and $35 million in software products revenue alone. This chart does not include IBM’s software products revenue. From Martin Campbell-Kelly, ''From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hed)1
19:41, 14 February 2014Fig04-IBMS360 CHM102618836sm.jpg (file)Administrator71.25 MB (The IBM System/360 line of products revolutionized the mainframe computer hardware market and set the foundation for the later growth of the mainframe software industry by establishing de facto standard environments. Courtesy of the Computer History Museu)1
19:29, 14 February 2014Fig03-FredBrooksIBMS360 CHM102657020graySm.jpg (file)Administrator71.96 MB (Fred Brooks led the IBM team that completed the complex programming of the IBM System/360 Operating System. Courtesy of the Computer History Museum)1
17:43, 14 February 2014Fig02-BackusJohnFace-IBMArchives.jpg (file)Administrator7735 KB (Between 1954 and 1957, John Backus led the IBM team that created the FORTRAN language and then built a compiler that generated machine code to run the FORTRAN programs. Courtesy IBM Corporate Archives)1
17:31, 14 February 2014Fig01-UNIVAC1 CHM102630875gray.jpg (file)Administrator76.9 MB (Introduced in 1951, the Univac I was the first commercially successful digital computer. It first drew national attention in the United States when it was used to predict the results of the 1952 presidential election.)1
20:17, 13 February 2014Fig5-Mamin-STMgoldWorld1c1990.JPG (file)Administrator71.06 MB (H. Jonathon Mamin, Shirley Chiang, H. Birk, Peter H. Guethner, and Daniel Rugar of IBM's Almaden Research Center, California, deposited and then imaged gold clusters with a scanning tunneling microscope to form nanometric structures on a gold substrate in)1
20:04, 13 February 2014Fig4-EiglerSchweizerIBMatomsSTM1990.jpg (file)Administrator7355 KB (Series of images taken during Don Eigler and Erhard Schweizer's arrangement of xenon atoms on a Ni (110) surface, beginning with the dosing of the crystalline surface with Xe atoms. Each atom is 1.6 Angstroms high; each letter measures 50 A from top to bo)1
19:50, 13 February 2014Fig6-JohnBaldeschwielerCalTechSTMc1986.jpg (file)Administrator7672 KB (John Baldeschweiler and postdocs led by Paul West at CalTech built this scanning tunneling microscope in 1986 as the basis for QuanScan, an STM startup succeeded by TopoMetrix in 1990. Photo by Gregory Tobias, courtesy of the Chemical Heritage Foundation )1
19:59, 14 January 2014Fig7-DigitalInstrumentsScanningProbeMicroscopeAd1993.jpg (file)Administrator71.63 MB (Digital Instruments advertisement from the “We Have Science Covered” campaign in 1993.)1
21:09, 13 January 2014Fig3-Si111 7x7omicronmedia800x1200.jpg (file)Administrator7169 KB (Single crystalline Si(111)7x7 obtained using low temperature Atomic Force Microscopy with QPlus sensor, c. 2011. Courtesy Oxford Instruments Omicron NanoScience)1
20:41, 13 January 2014Fig2-RussellYoungFieldEmissionUltramicrometer1967.jpg (file)Administrator7498 KB (Russell Young and a field-emission ultramicrometer test rig. The emitter is the downward-facing metal triangle inside the glass envelope. The anode is the tantalum strip (bent into an upward-facing arc) directly beneath the emitter. From Anonymous, “)1
20:39, 13 January 2014Fig1-STM-Rohrer-BinnigIBM.jpg (file)Administrator71.23 MB (Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig pose with the core of their scanning tunneling microscope, the underlying technological accomplishment of their 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics, received with electron microscope inventor Ernst Ruska. Courtesy IBM Archives.)1
21:29, 2 January 2014Fig3-STM Rohrer Binnig.png (file)Administrator74.67 MB (Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig with their first scanning microscope, for which they received U.S. Patent 4,343,993 in 1982 and the Nobel Prize in 1986. Courtesy IBM.)1
20:05, 2 January 2014Fig2-JohnBaldeschwielerCalTechSTMc1984.jpg (file)Administrator7288 KB (Early Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) from John Baldeschwieler’s group at CalTech. The three circular pads are the feet of the “louse,” which carries the sample toward the STM tip (the needle above and to the right of the louse). Total size is a)1
19:46, 14 October 2013Fig16-InformationStorageLogplot1955-1985.png (file)Administrator7180 KB (Log of cost per bit of storage technologies is plotted versus year first installed in a product. Least expensive are magnetic tapes stored on a shelf, followed by magnetic disk packs stored on a shelf. When loaded on tape or , these technologies have ab)1
19:41, 14 October 2013Fig15-AlShugart1984.JPG (file)Administrator7502 KB (Alan F. Shugart photographed in 1984, six years after he founded Seagate Technology. He was a charismatic and insightful leader. Courtesy Seagate Technology)1
19:41, 14 October 2013Fig14-IBM1311DiskStorage1962.jpg (file)Administrator780 KB (The IBM 1311 Disk Storage, announced in 1962, featured IBM 1316 removable disk packs, one of which is being held by the man. The lowest cost IBM 1311 was priced at $17,000 ($130,000 if inflation-adjusted to 2012). To good approximation, each disk pack wei)1
19:40, 14 October 2013Fig13-IBM1301DiskStorage1961-06.jpg (file)Administrator717 KB (The IBM 1301 Disk Storage, announced in June 1961, was IBM’s first disk storage product with aerodynamic slider . It could be ordered with one or two 25-disk modules, one mounted above the other on the rotating vertical shaft, as shown here.�)1
19:39, 14 October 2013Fig12-RAMACProductionIBM1957.jpg (file)Administrator7147 KB (IBM RAMAC systems are shown being manufactured in Building 5 of the new plant site at Monterey and Cottle Roads in San Jose.)1
19:38, 14 October 2013Fig11-RAMACoperating.jpg (file)Administrator768 KB (One of the first RAMAC models in operation, with a young woman seated at the console. Box to left of the console contains the air compressor, and the IBM 350 Disk storage unit can be seen behind the glass panel to her left. Card reader punch and printe)1
19:38, 14 October 2013Fig10-IBMWatsonJrWatsonSr1956-05.png (file)Administrator7135 KB (Thomas J. Watson, Jr., is congratulated by his father upon his promotion to chief executive officer of IBM on 8 May 1956. Six weeks later Watson, Sr., died of a heart attack. For 42 years, Watson Sr. had guided the company through the era of electromechan)2
19:36, 14 October 2013Fig9-DickinsonIBM350DiskStorageRAMAC.jpg (file)Administrator741 KB (Wesley E. Dickinson, an engineer on the RAMAC project, points to the servo-driven access mechanism on an IBM 350 disk storage unit in development.)1
19:35, 14 October 2013Fig8-IBMFirstDiskDriveTestBed1954.jpg (file)Administrator7115 KB (IBM San Jose’s first disk drive test bed. It successfully transferred data to and from a rotating magnetic disk on February 10, 1954. Note use of two 12-inch I-beams to assure stability of the test bed.�)1
19:34, 14 October 2013Fig7-LouisBStevensIBM1953.jpg (file)Administrator742 KB (Louis D. Stevens transferred to the new IBM San Jose Laboratory in early 1952 as technical assistant to Reynold B. Johnson. In November 1953 Johnson promoted Stevens to senior engineer and manager of the RAMAC project. Stevens retained responsibility for )1
19:33, 14 October 2013Fig6-FirstAirBearingReadWriteHeads.jpg (file)Administrator755 KB (San Jose’s first successful air-bearing read-write heads for on magnetic disks. They incorporated magnetic read-write elements manufactured for a magnetic drum product. Forced air flowing through the orifices in the face of each head formed a film of )1
19:31, 14 October 2013Fig5-MagneticDiskTestBench1953.jpg (file)Administrator780 KB (Magnetic and reading experiments were made with this test bench and equipment during the summer of 1953. Among the factors varied and observed were disk diameter and thickness, revolutions per minute, surface smoothness and flatness, density, and space be)1
16:10, 10 October 2013Fig4-IBMSanJoseLab1953.jpg (file)Administrator760 KB (IBM rented this building at 99 Notre Dame Avenue in San Jose, California, to house its first laboratory on the West Coast of the United States. It provided the highly desired opportunity for students graduating from regional universities to obtain employ)1
16:04, 10 October 2013Fig3-ReynoldBJohnsonIBM1952.jpg (file)Administrator731 KB (Reynold B. Johnson was appointed manager of the new IBM Laboratory in San Jose, California, in January 1952. He gained the respect of all employees for his engineering knowledge and judgment and for his fair and courageous leadership.)1
15:51, 10 October 2013Fig2-UNIVAC1951.jpg (file)Administrator7109 KB (The first UNIVAC was accepted by the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951. UNIVAC was the first commercial stored-program computer to be placed into production. )1
15:35, 10 October 2013Fig1-IBM603ElectronicMultiplier1946.jpg (file)Administrator762 KB (The IBM 603 Electronic Multiplier, announced in1964, consisted of a card reader-punch (left, rear), connected by a cable to an electronic calculating unit that contained approximately 300 vacuum tubes (right, front). It was the first electronic calculat)1
19:46, 16 April 2013Sinking ship.JPG (file)Administrator746 KB 1
19:45, 16 April 2013Nutritional facts.JPG (file)Administrator761 KB 1
19:43, 16 April 2013Extra rules.JPG (file)Administrator787 KB 1
19:41, 16 April 2013Academic dishonesty.JPG (file)Administrator789 KB 1
19:38, 16 April 2013Lack of sleep.JPG (file)Administrator736 KB 1
19:36, 16 April 2013Mercy.JPG (file)Administrator712 KB 1
19:33, 16 April 2013Sad story.JPG (file)Administrator745 KB 1
19:30, 16 April 2013Axiom of probablity 2.JPG (file)Administrator720 KB 1
19:22, 16 April 2013Miracle question.JPG (file)Administrator7260 KB 1
18:15, 12 April 2013Fig11-WesternElectric500Telephone1950.png (file)Administrator7130 KB (Western Electric Model 500 telephone, c. 1950.Courtesy AT&T Archives and History Center.)1

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