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STARS:Underwater Cables

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{{STARSArticle|citation=Communications cables under the seas have played a pivotal role in binding the world together—economically, politically and culturally—in ways that have been both beneficial and detrimental (or, one might say, stabilizing and destabilizing). Technical developments have taken the cables through three distinct eras: telegraphy with single-conductor copper wires, beginning in the 1850s; telephony by means of coaxial cables with repeaters, beginning in the 1950s; and data transmission through optical fibers, beginning in the 1980s.|timeline={{STARSTimeline|year1=|event1=|year2=|event2=|year3=|event3=|year4=|event4=|year5=|event5=}}|essay=|bibliography={{STARSBibliography|Pauthor1=|Pyear1=|Ptitle1=|Ppublisher1=|Pauthor2=|Pyear2=|Ptitle2=|Ppublisher2=|Pauthor3=|Pyear3=|Ptitle3=|Ppublisher3=|Pauthor4=|Pyear4=|Ptitle4=|Ppublisher4=|Pauthor5=|Pyear5=|Ptitle5=|Ppublisher5=|Sauthor1=|Syear1=|Stitle1=|Spublisher1=|Sauthor2=|Syear2=|Stitle2=|Spublisher2=|Sauthor3=|Syear3=|Stitle3=|Spublisher3=|Sauthor4=|Syear4=|Stitle4=|Spublisher4=|Sauthor5=|Syear5=|Stitle5=|Spublisher5=}}|resume=|complete=}}[[Category:]]
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{{STARSArticle|citation=Communications cables under the seas have played a pivotal role in binding the world together—economically, politically and culturally—in ways that have been both beneficial and detrimental (or, one might say, stabilizing and destabilizing). Technical developments have taken the cables through three distinct eras: telegraphy with single-conductor copper wires, beginning in the 1850s; telephony by means of coaxial cables with repeaters, beginning in the 1950s; and data transmission through optical fibers, beginning in the 1980s.|timeline={{STARSTimeline|year1=1847|event1=John and Jacob Brett suggest trans-Atlantic cable|year2=1850|event2=First cable across English Channel, worked briefly|year3=1858|event3=First cable across Atlantic, failure within a month|year4=1861|event4=British Parliamentary Commission report on submarine telegraph cables|year5=1864|event5=Successful Persian Gulf cable to Karachi, following Commission recommendations|year6=1866|event6=First successful Atlantic cable, laid by Great Eastern|year7=1867|event7=Siphon  recorder introduced|year8=1873|event8=Duplex introduced in Atlantic cables|year9=1901|event9=Pacific cable from Canada to Australia and New Zealand|year10=1924|event10=First magnetically-loaded Atlantic cable|year11=1958|event11=First trans-Atlantic telephone cable, coaxial with repeaters|year12=1965|event12=First transistorized Atlantic telephone  cable|year13=1970|event13=Communications –grade optical fiber developed at Corning |year14=1980|event14=Commitment to single-mode fiber transmission  for TAT-8|year15=1984|event15=Fiber-optic cable to Isle of Wight, first to carry regular traffic|year16=1987|event16=Report of erbium-doped fiber amplifier|year17=1988|event17=First trans-Atlantic fiber optic cable|year18=1996|event18=Optical amplifier introduced in Atlantic cable (TAT-12)|year19=1998|event19=First long-distance cables with wave-length division multiplexing}}|essay=|bibliography={{STARSBibliography|Pauthor1=|Pyear1=|Ptitle1=|Ppublisher1=|Pauthor2=|Pyear2=|Ptitle2=|Ppublisher2=|Pauthor3=|Pyear3=|Ptitle3=|Ppublisher3=|Pauthor4=|Pyear4=|Ptitle4=|Ppublisher4=|Pauthor5=|Pyear5=|Ptitle5=|Ppublisher5=|Sauthor1=|Syear1=|Stitle1=|Spublisher1=|Sauthor2=|Syear2=|Stitle2=|Spublisher2=|Sauthor3=|Syear3=|Stitle3=|Spublisher3=|Sauthor4=|Syear4=|Stitle4=|Spublisher4=|Sauthor5=|Syear5=|Stitle5=|Spublisher5=}}|resume=|complete=}}[[Category:]]

Revision as of 18:56, 18 January 2010

Author: Bernard Finn

Citation

Communications cables under the seas have played a pivotal role in binding the world together—economically, politically and culturally—in ways that have been both beneficial and detrimental (or, one might say, stabilizing and destabilizing). Technical developments have taken the cables through three distinct eras: telegraphy with single-conductor copper wires, beginning in the 1850s; telephony by means of coaxial cables with repeaters, beginning in the 1950s; and data transmission through optical fibers, beginning in the 1980s.

Timeline

1847 John and Jacob Brett suggest trans-Atlantic cable
1850 First cable across English Channel, worked briefly
1858 First cable across Atlantic, failure within a month
1861 British Parliamentary Commission report on submarine telegraph cables
1864 Successful Persian Gulf cable to Karachi, following Commission recommendations
1866 First successful Atlantic cable, laid by Great Eastern
1867 Siphon recorder introduced
1873 Duplex introduced in Atlantic cables
1901 Pacific cable from Canada to Australia and New Zealand
1924 First magnetically-loaded Atlantic cable
1958 First trans-Atlantic telephone cable, coaxial with repeaters
1965 First transistorized Atlantic telephone cable
1970 Communications –grade optical fiber developed at Corning
1980 Commitment to single-mode fiber transmission for TAT-8
1984 Fiber-optic cable to Isle of Wight, first to carry regular traffic
1987 Report of erbium-doped fiber amplifier
1988 First trans-Atlantic fiber optic cable
1996 Optical amplifier introduced in Atlantic cable (TAT-12)
1998 First long-distance cables with wave-length division multiplexing

Essay

Bibliography

References of Historical Significance


References for Further Reading


About the Author(s)

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