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STARS:Electronic Calculators: Desktop to Pocket

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Author: Earl Swartzlander

Citation

Starting in 1960, desktop calculators based on vacuum tubes were introduced to replace the mechanical and electromechanical calculators that had been widely used in business, engineering and science. Electronic calculators were more durable, faster, and silent. In the mid-1960s vacuum tubes were replaced by discrete transistors to provide more functionality and greater durability. By the mid-1970s, small battery-powered pocket calculators, implemented with integrated circuits, had replaced desktop calculators and were rapidly replacing the previously indispensable engineering slide rules.

Timeline

1960 ANITA desktop calculator is the first electronic desktop calculator
1963 Friden EC-130 desktop calculator is the first transistorized desktop calculator
1965 Wang LOCI desktop calculator is introduced
1968 HP 9100A Desktop Engineering Calculator is introduced
1972 HP-35, the first pocket engineering calculator, is introduced
1976 TI-30 scientific pocket calculator is introduced

Essay

Bibliography

References of Historical Significance


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