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STARS:Electronic Calculators: Desktop to Pocket

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Author: Earl Swartzlander


Starting in 1960, desktop calculators based on vacuum tubes were introduced to replace the mechanical and electromechanical calculators that had been widely used in business, engineering and science. Electronic calculators were more durable, faster, and silent. In the mid-1960s vacuum tubes were replaced by discrete transistors to provide more functionality and greater durability. By the mid-1970s, small battery-powered pocket calculators, implemented with integrated circuits, had replaced desktop calculators and were rapidly replacing the previously indispensable engineering slide rules.




References of Historical Significance

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