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STARS:Electronic Calculators: Desktop to Pocket

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{{STARSArticle|citation=|timeline={{STARSTimeline|year1=|event1=|year2=|event2=|year3=|event3=|year4=|event4=|year5=|event5=|year6=|event6=|year7=|event7=}}|essay=|bibliography={{STARSBibliography|Pauthor1=|Pyear1=|Ptitle1=|Ppublisher1=|Pauthor2=|Pyear2=|Ptitle2=|Ppublisher2=|Pauthor3=|Pyear3=|Ptitle3=|Ppublisher3=|Pauthor4=|Pyear4=|Ptitle4=|Ppublisher4=|Pauthor5=|Pyear5=|Ptitle5=|Ppublisher5=|Sauthor1=|Syear1=|Stitle1=|Spublisher1=|Sauthor2=|Syear2=|Stitle2=|Spublisher2=|Sauthor3=|Syear3=|Stitle3=|Spublisher3=|Sauthor4=|Syear4=|Stitle4=|Spublisher4=|Sauthor5=|Syear5=|Stitle5=|Spublisher5=}}|resume=|complete=1263926}}[[Category:Calculators, Computers, and the Internet]]</p>
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{{STARSArticle|citation=<p></p>Starting in 1960, desktop calculators based on vacuum tubes were introduced to replace the mechanical and electromechanical calculators that had been widely used in business, engineering and science.  Electronic calculators were more durable, faster, and silent.  In the mid-1960s vacuum tubes were replaced by discrete transistors to provide more functionality and greater durability.  By the mid-1970s, small battery-powered pocket calculators, implemented with integrated circuits, had replaced desktop calculators and were rapidly replacing the previously indispensable engineering slide rules.|timeline={{STARSTimeline|year1=|event1=|year2=|event2=|year3=|event3=|year4=|event4=|year5=|event5=|year6=|event6=|year7=|event7=}}|essay=|bibliography={{STARSBibliography|Pauthor1=|Pyear1=|Ptitle1=|Ppublisher1=|Pauthor2=|Pyear2=|Ptitle2=|Ppublisher2=|Pauthor3=|Pyear3=|Ptitle3=|Ppublisher3=|Pauthor4=|Pyear4=|Ptitle4=|Ppublisher4=|Pauthor5=|Pyear5=|Ptitle5=|Ppublisher5=|Sauthor1=|Syear1=|Stitle1=|Spublisher1=|Sauthor2=|Syear2=|Stitle2=|Spublisher2=|Sauthor3=|Syear3=|Stitle3=|Spublisher3=|Sauthor4=|Syear4=|Stitle4=|Spublisher4=|Sauthor5=|Syear5=|Stitle5=|Spublisher5=}}|resume=|complete=1263926}}[[Category:]]

Revision as of 14:27, 5 August 2010

Author: Earl Swartzlander

Citation

Starting in 1960, desktop calculators based on vacuum tubes were introduced to replace the mechanical and electromechanical calculators that had been widely used in business, engineering and science. Electronic calculators were more durable, faster, and silent. In the mid-1960s vacuum tubes were replaced by discrete transistors to provide more functionality and greater durability. By the mid-1970s, small battery-powered pocket calculators, implemented with integrated circuits, had replaced desktop calculators and were rapidly replacing the previously indispensable engineering slide rules.

Timeline

Essay

Bibliography

References of Historical Significance


References for Further Reading


About the Author(s)

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