Property:Proposed Milestone Plaque Citation
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Pages using the property "Proposed Milestone Plaque Citation"
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|Ampex Videotape Recorder - 1956 +||In 1956, Ampex Corporation of Redwood City, California, introduced the world's first practical videotape recorder for television stations and networks to produce and time-shift broadcasts, replacing impractical "kinescope" movie film previously used to record TV. The Emmy®-award-winning Ampex "VTR" analog-video recording standard ruled broadcasting worldwide for 20 years, replaced by smaller, less expensive analog and digital videotape formats and non-tape, computer-based servers.|
|Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc., the First 60 Years, 1925-1984 +||(Note that there will be four plaques in order to provide space to list the achievements) BELL LABS - WIRELESS AND SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS, THE FIRST 60 YEARS Between 1925 and 1984, Bell Labs researchers made numerous fundamental contributions to wireless and satellite communications including the first radio astronomical observations (1933), the Friis transmission formula (1946), the cellular radio concept (1947), characterization of point-to-point microwave propagation (1950's-70's), the first active communications satellite, Telstar (1962), the first observation of the cosmic background radiation (1965) and the Advanced Mobile Phone System, AMPS (1977). BELL LABS - DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND COMPUTING, THE FIRST 60 YEARS Between 1925 and 1984, Bell Labs researchers made numerous fundamental contributions to digital signal processing and computing including the first electronic speech synthesizer (1937), the Karnaugh map (1953), computer generated music (1957), digital computer art (1962), the UNIX operating system (1969), the C programming language (1970), the AWK programming language (1977), the first single-chip 32-bit microprocessor (1980) and the C++ programming language (1983). BELL LABS - SOLID STATE AND OPTICAL DEVICES, THE FIRST 60 YEARS Between 1925 and 1984, Bell Labs researchers made numerous fundamental contributions to solid state and optical devices including the discovery of electron diffraction (1927), the transistor (1947), zone refining (1951), the solar cell (1954), theory of the laser (1958), the MOSFET (1959), the electret microphone (1962), the CO2 laser (1964), molecular beam epitaxy (1968), the charge coupled device (1969), modified chemical vapor deposition (1974) and the fractional quantum hall effect (1982). BELL LABS - COMMUNICATIONS THEORY AND NETWORKS, THE FIRST 60 YEARS Between 1925 and 1984, Bell Labs researchers made numerous fundamental contributions to communications theory and networks including the negative feedback principle (1927), the theory of the one-time pad cipher (1945), Hamming codes (1947), information theory (1948), modern cryptography (1949), the first trans-Atlantic telephone cable (1956), Direct Distance Dialing (1950's), the first transcontinental microwave relay networks (1950s), greedy algorithms for network design (1960s) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (1966).|
|Cruft HighTension Laboratory, Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Science +||ROUGH DRAFT Cruft Laboratory was designed in 1915 to support research on radio antennas and storage batteries. During WW1, a nation wide radio training school for military personnel was established there. Special courses and text books in communications engineering were created for naval officers. During WW2, Cruft was dedicated to radar training for the military. Cruft and adjacent laboratories were much more than a place of learning by facilitating the work of GW Pierce, El Chaffee and other researchers, who contributed greatly to radio communications.|
|First Digitally Processed Image from a Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar +||In November 1978, a team from MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) became the first to use a digital processor to reconstruct an image from Seasat-A, the first civilian spaceborne SAR. MDA engineers subsequently developed three of the four most important SAR processing algorithms and the digital processors used by many Canadian, Japanese, European and American spaceborne SAR missions.|
|First RISC Microprocessor +||UC Berkeley students designed and implemented the first VLSI reduced instruction set computer in 1981. The simplified instructions of RISC-I reduced the hardware for instruction decode and control, which enabled a flat 32-bit address space, a large set of registers, and pipelined execution. A good match to C programs and the Unix operating system, RISC-I influenced instruction sets widely used today, including those for game consoles, smartphones and tablets.|
|First Technical Meeting of AIEE 1884 +||As part of the landmark International Electrical Exhibition organized by the Franklin Institute and held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1884, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, a predecessor of IEEE, held its first conference on 7-8 October 1884. This meeting was the first formal technical conference on electrical engineering held in the United States.|
|Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems,1975 +||Gapless Metal Oxide Surge Arrester (MOSA) for electric power systems,1975 Meidensha Corporation developed MOSA and its mass production system by innovating on Panasonic Corporation’s ZnO varistor basic patent. MOSA drastically raised performance level against multiple lightning strikes and contamination and led to the UHV protective device development. This technology contributed to improving the safety and reliability of electric power systems and to establishing the international standards.|
|High Temperature Superconductivity +||On this site in 1987, the discovery of a superconducting material (TBCO) at temperature above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77K) was made. At 93K, it was an improvement of 70 degrees over the previous record of 23K. It significantly lowers the cost and reduces the technological challenges in refrigeration. It had practical implications in electric power transmission, MRI, and magnetic levitation for mass transportation among others.|
|Line spectrum pair (LSP), an essential technology for high-compression speech coding, 1975 +||Line Spectrum Pair, invented at NTT in 1975, is an important technology for speech coding. A speech synthesizer LSI was designed based on LSP in 1980, and many international speech coding standards of ITU-T (IP phones), 3GPP, 3GPP2 (3rd generation cellular phones), and the Internet Engineering Task Force have adopted LSP as an essential technology. These standards cover almost all cellular and IP phones worldwide.|
|Mark 1 Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC) by Howard Aiken and IBM +||DRAFT ONLY. Developed by Harvard faculty member Howard Aiken and IBM in the early 1940s, the massive machine was originally called the ASCC (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator). The Mark I is considered one of the first electro-mechanical computers ever created and represents a fundamental milestone in the history of modern computing. Software innovations designed by Grace Hooper were an important part of the machine.|
|Sharp 14-inch thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD) for TV, which has ushered in TFT LCD industry +||Sharp demonstrated a 14-in. TFT-LCD for TV in 1988 when the display sizes of the mass-produced TFT-LCD and CRT TVs in the largest number were 3-in. and 14-in. respectively. The breathtakingly high display quality in CRT-size convinced vacillating electronic companies to decide to join the burgeoning TFT-LCD industry, vaulting it to the major league status in emerging full-color portable PCs, and replaced CRTs in TVs about 2 decades later.|
|The 20 inch Diameter Photomultiplier Tubes +||In 1979, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. began developing 20-inch diameter photomultiplier tubes at the Toyooka Factory for the Cherenkov radiation detector Kamiokande II which was equipped with 948 tubes with gain of 10⁷. It detected the neutrino burst in the Supernova SN1987A in 1987, opening a new window in astrophysics which earned Professor Masatoshi Koshiba a Nobel Prize in 2002.|
|Unidirectional Microphone +||In 1939, Shure Incorporated introduced the Unidyne microphone. Using the Uniphase acoustical design, the patented Unidyne was the first microphone to provide directional characteristics using a single dynamic element. This breakthrough offered lower cost, greater reliability and improved performance for communication and public address systems. Shure Unidyne microphones are still manufactured and used worldwide in numerous audio applications.|