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Milestone-Proposal:The first satellite broadcasting to the public

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{{ProposalEdit|a1=The first satellite broadcasting to the public|a2a=NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories|a2b=IEEE Tokyo Section|a3=1984|a4=NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) planned to use satellites for broadcasting in 1965 in response to the communications satellites being developed in the USA, and began to research and development of satellites next year.  After extensive research at  NHK Laboratories and the experiments by NHK and other organizations through the experimental broadcasting satellite which was manufactured by Toshiba and GE, the first practical broadcasting satellite was launched by *NASDA (National Space Development Agency) of Japan in January 1984, and satellite broadcasting to the public started in May of that year.  The satellite broadcasting provided high quality TV services to the general public.|a5=Direct broadcasting from a satellite in geostationary orbit to home receivers equipped with a small antenna was not the usual form of satellite communication at that time, and it represented a significant advance in satellite transmission capabilities.  The satellite broadcasting provided clear beautiful TV pictures over a very large area, covering not only the main islands of Japan but also remote islands.  The pictures were free of any ghost images from signals off reflected buildings and mountains.  After a few years, even high definition TV (HDTV) broadcasting was provided.|a6=The biggest problem was how to build a broadcasting satellite of the same size as a communications satellite.  The selection of the 12 GHz band and Dr. Yoshihiro Konishi’s invention, an inexpensive solid-plane circuit with a lower noise figure in the 12 GHz band, were instrumental in solving this problem.  By using low-noise home receivers, the output power of the transmitter on the satellite could be lowered to 100W, thereby enabling the satellite to be smaller.  An affordable receiver was also important; without one, satellite broadcasting would never be popular.  The answer was again in the solid-plane circuit, which could be easily made by punching.  The know-how to make receivers with this circuit was transferred to 31 manufacturers, inside as well as outside Japan.  Moreover, by developing measurement systems of rain attenuation and computer software for channel allotment, NHK helped to solve other problems such as the attenuation of 12 GHz waves by rain and how to allot frequencies and orbital positions fairly.|a7=The milestone plaque will be installed outside the building of NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, but within the laboratories lot at the entrance space.  The location is chosen so that every visitor to the laboratories can see the milestone plaque.|a8=No|a9=The building of the laboratories is guarded by security personnel at the entrance of the laboratories lot and at the entrance of the building.|a10=NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation)|a11=Yes|a12=Dr. Hideki Imai, Chair of IEEE Tokyo Section, agreed to sponsor the Milestone nomination.|a13name=Hideki Imai|a13section=Tokyo|a13position=Chair|a13email=h-imai@imailab.jp|a14name=|a14ou=|a14position=|a14email=|a15Aname=Kazuyoshi Shogen|a15Aemail=shogen.k-fg@nhk.or.jp|a15Aname2=|a15Aemail2=|a15Bname=Nobuyuki Yagi|a15Bemail=yagi.n-iy@nhk.or.jp|a15Bname2=|a15Bemail2=|a15Cname=Keiichi Kubota|a15Ctitle=Director General|a15Corg=NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories|a15Caddress=1-10-11 Kinuta, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8510 Japan|a15Cphone=81-3-5494-3100|a15Cemail=kubota.k-eu@nhk.or.jp}}
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{{ProposalEdit|a1=The first satellite broadcasting to the public|a2a=NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories|a2b=IEEE Tokyo Section|a3=1984|a4=NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) planned to use satellites for broadcasting in 1965 in response to the communications satellites being developed in the USA, and began to research and development of satellites next year.  After extensive research at  NHK Laboratories and the experiments by NHK and other organizations through the experimental broadcasting satellite which was manufactured by Toshiba and GE, the first practical broadcasting satellite was launched by *NASDA (National Space Development Agency) of Japan in January 1984, and satellite broadcasting to the public started in May of that year.  The satellite broadcasting provided high quality TV services to the general public.|a5=Direct broadcasting from a satellite in geostationary orbit to home receivers equipped with a small antenna was not the usual form of satellite communication at that time, and it represented a significant advance in satellite transmission capabilities.  The satellite broadcasting provided clear beautiful TV pictures over a very large area, covering not only the main islands of Japan but also remote islands.  The pictures were free of any ghost images from signals off reflected buildings and mountains.  After a few years, even high definition TV (HDTV) broadcasting was provided.|a6=The biggest problem was how to build a broadcasting satellite of the same size as a communications satellite.  The selection of the 12 GHz band and Dr. Yoshihiro Konishi’s invention, an inexpensive solid-plane circuit with a lower noise figure in the 12 GHz band, were instrumental in solving this problem.  By using low-noise home receivers, the output power of the transmitter on the satellite could be lowered to 100W, thereby enabling the satellite to be smaller.  An affordable receiver was also important; without one, satellite broadcasting would never be popular.  The answer was again in the solid-plane circuit, which could be easily made by punching.  The know-how to make receivers with this circuit was transferred to 31 manufacturers, inside as well as outside Japan.  Moreover, by developing measurement systems of rain attenuation and computer software for channel allotment, NHK helped to solve other problems such as the attenuation of 12 GHz waves by rain and how to allot frequencies and orbital positions fairly.|a7=The milestone plaque will be installed outside the building of NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories, but within the laboratories lot at the entrance space.  The location is chosen so that every visitor to the laboratories can see the milestone plaque.|a8=No|a9=The building of the laboratories is guarded by security personnel at the entrance of the laboratories lot and at the entrance of the building.|a10=NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation)|a11=Yes|a12=Dr. Hideki Imai, Chair of IEEE Tokyo Section, agreed to sponsor the Milestone nomination.|a13name=Hideki Imai|a13section=IEEE Tokyo Section|a13position=Chair|a13email=h-imai@imailab.jp|a14name=|a14ou=|a14position=|a14email=|a15Aname=Kazuyoshi Shogen|a15Aemail=shogen.k-fg@nhk.or.jp|a15Aname2=|a15Aemail2=|a15Bname=Nobuyuki Yagi|a15Bemail=yagi.n-iy@nhk.or.jp|a15Bname2=|a15Bemail2=|a15Cname=Keiichi Kubota|a15Ctitle=Director General|a15Corg=NHK Science and Technology Research Laboratories|a15Caddress=1-10-11 Kinuta, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8510 Japan|a15Cphone=81-3-5494-3100|a15Cemail=kubota.k-eu@nhk.or.jp}}

Revision as of 01:08, 28 December 2009

This Proposal has not been submitted and may only be edited by the original author.