IEEE
You are not logged in, please sign in to edit > Log in / create account  

Milestone-Proposal:LORAN

From GHN

(Difference between revisions)
Jump to: navigation, search
(Article updated via HTTP request)
(Article updated via HTTP request)
Line 10: Line 10:
 
Pierce,  Eastman and a small group of radio experts soon began testing the United States' first hyperbolic radio aid to navigation, investigating  radio frequencies, wave patterns, propagation, reflection, and so on. The trials, scientific investigations, all are better described in the References provided here, especially the IRE article by  JA Pierce.  
 
Pierce,  Eastman and a small group of radio experts soon began testing the United States' first hyperbolic radio aid to navigation, investigating  radio frequencies, wave patterns, propagation, reflection, and so on. The trials, scientific investigations, all are better described in the References provided here, especially the IRE article by  JA Pierce.  
 
MIT Rad Lab personnel built the first few experimental transmitters in their shop.  The same team members later to get early loran stations for the North Atlantic Chain erected ond on the air.  in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador and Greenland. and  supervised their installation of  (Station 1 through 4) tbv of the first few loran stations and erected  
 
MIT Rad Lab personnel built the first few experimental transmitters in their shop.  The same team members later to get early loran stations for the North Atlantic Chain erected ond on the air.  in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Labrador and Greenland. and  supervised their installation of  (Station 1 through 4) tbv of the first few loran stations and erected  
Rad Lab was able to step after loran was running on a firm foundation.
+
Rad Lab was able to step away after loran was running on a solid foundation. By 1945 the Rad Lab program was terminated.
Rad Lab's  project involvement terminated when loran was on a solid foundation..  
+
 
Jack Pierce's epic article published by the IEEE in 1946 is the prime source for the information here.  
 
Jack Pierce's epic article published by the IEEE in 1946 is the prime source for the information here.  
 
THE LORAN PROJECT WAS A GREAT ELECTRICAL  ENGINEERING ACCOMPLISHMENT.  
 
THE LORAN PROJECT WAS A GREAT ELECTRICAL  ENGINEERING ACCOMPLISHMENT.  
Line 22: Line 22:
 
“About 75,000 ship-borne and air-borne navigator’s receivers had been delivered by a number of manufactured. The Hydrographic Office, which had been preparing loran charts since the early days of naval use of the system, had shipped two-and-a-quarter million charts to various operating agencies. Pierce
 
“About 75,000 ship-borne and air-borne navigator’s receivers had been delivered by a number of manufactured. The Hydrographic Office, which had been preparing loran charts since the early days of naval use of the system, had shipped two-and-a-quarter million charts to various operating agencies. Pierce
 
“The total cost of the loran research, development and procurement of the Radiation Laboratory….  Charges for R&D which produced the loran system can be assessed at no more than 2% of the investment in equipment….  Demonstrate that R&D can exists and be efficient under difficult conditions obtaining in wartime…. Pierce
 
“The total cost of the loran research, development and procurement of the Radiation Laboratory….  Charges for R&D which produced the loran system can be assessed at no more than 2% of the investment in equipment….  Demonstrate that R&D can exists and be efficient under difficult conditions obtaining in wartime…. Pierce
The USCG gets much of the credit forLORAN's initial development and for its success by ensuring its safe and reliable service. Its very doubtful that are great engineered system can last very long without proper operation and maintenance. Therefore Loran's long term success can be attributed to USGC members like . .  
+
The USCG gets much of the credit for LORAN's initial development and for its success by ensuring its safe and reliable service. Its very doubtful that are great engineered system can last very long without proper operation and maintenance. Therefore Loran's long term success can be attributed to USGC members like . .  
 
System Description
 
System Description
 
Refer to Pierce article
 
Refer to Pierce article
INSERT IMAGE HERE  showing the extent of coverage in 5 years of effort... 1946
+
INSERT IMAGE HERE  showing the extent of coverage in 5 years of effort... 1946.
 +
 
 +
 
 
LORAN first signal began transmissions during the summer 1941. New LORAN transmitting stations were added around the Atlantic coast throughout WW2 and the continental United States. The LORAN-C system became obsolete, replaced by GPS navigation system and the LORAN system was terminated in a special ceremony orchestrated by USGC Washington headquarters in 8 February 2010.theHow the LORAN project was initiated, organized and managed is very interested, if not note worthy.
 
LORAN first signal began transmissions during the summer 1941. New LORAN transmitting stations were added around the Atlantic coast throughout WW2 and the continental United States. The LORAN-C system became obsolete, replaced by GPS navigation system and the LORAN system was terminated in a special ceremony orchestrated by USGC Washington headquarters in 8 February 2010.theHow the LORAN project was initiated, organized and managed is very interested, if not note worthy.
 
Rapid construction under extreme weather conditions. System operation by operators from different nations: US, Canada and Denmark. Collaborative effort. MIT Lab was initially responsible for the entire program, but under close hands-on direction of the USCG.  USGC's role increased.  
 
Rapid construction under extreme weather conditions. System operation by operators from different nations: US, Canada and Denmark. Collaborative effort. MIT Lab was initially responsible for the entire program, but under close hands-on direction of the USCG.  USGC's role increased.  
Line 38: Line 40:
 
http://www.jproc.ca/hyperbolic/loran_a.html
 
http://www.jproc.ca/hyperbolic/loran_a.html
 
NOTE
 
NOTE
" In mid-1942, R. J. Dippy, who had invented the Gee system, was sent to the USA for eight months to assist in Loran development. Many of the techniques used in Gee were adopted, and it was he who insisted that the Loran and Gee receivers were made physically interchangeable so that any RAF or USAAF aircraft fitted for one could use the other by simply swapping units. This was still to prove valuable, long after the war had finished, for Transport Command navigators flying the Australia run from the UK who could plug in the appropriate set depending on where they were. He also designed the ground station timing and synchronization equipment and his assistance speeded up Loran development considerably.  Once design had been finalized, production went ahead rapidly. The first Loran-A pair was on the air permanently by June 1942 (Montauk Point, NY, and Fenwick Is, Del.), and by October there were additional stations along the Canadian east coast. The system became operational in early 1943, and late that year stations were established in Greenland, Iceland, the Faeroes and the Hebrides to complete the North Atlantic cover, some being operated by the Royal Navy. At the request of the RAF, another station was put into the Shetlands to cover Norway, and Loran was eventually used by over 450 aircraft of Coastal Command.
+
" In mid-1942, R. J. Dippy, who had invented the Gee system, was sent to the USA for eight months to assist in Loran development. Many of the techniques used in Gee were adopted, and it was he who insisted that the Loran and Gee receivers were made physically interchangeable so that any RAF or USAAF aircraft fitted for one could use the other by simply swapping units. This was still to prove valuable, long after the war had finished, for Transport Command navigators flying the Australia run from the UK who could plug in the appropriate set depending on where they were. He also designed the ground station timing and synchronization equipment and his assistance speeded up Loran development considerably.  Once design had been finalized, production went ahead rapidly. The first Loran-A pair was on the air permanently by June 1942 (Montauk Point, NY, and Fenwick Is, Del.), and by October there were additional stations along the Canadian east coast. The system became operational in early 1943, and late that year stations were established in Greenland, Iceland, the Faeroes and the Hebrides to complete the North Atlantic cover, some being operated by the Royal Navy. At the request of the RAF, another station was put into the Shetlands to cover Norway, and Loran was eventually used by over 450 aircraft of Coastal Command.
 
" But it was in the Pacific that Loran made its greatest direct contribution to winning the war. Distances in the Pacific Ocean are enormous. As American forces moved westward, air fields were built on many of the small islands and atolls that dot the ocean beyond Hawaii. The limited range of many World War II aircraft demanded that they frequently land and refuel. Navigation by celestial observations is possible only when weather permits and, moreover, it requires a highly trained man who does little on the plane except navigate. Because of the lengthy training required, celestial navigators, particularly on Army Air Corps planes, were extremely scarce. Thus it was that loran provided the easy-to-use, accurate navigational system required to and the air fields so necessary for refueling.
 
" But it was in the Pacific that Loran made its greatest direct contribution to winning the war. Distances in the Pacific Ocean are enormous. As American forces moved westward, air fields were built on many of the small islands and atolls that dot the ocean beyond Hawaii. The limited range of many World War II aircraft demanded that they frequently land and refuel. Navigation by celestial observations is possible only when weather permits and, moreover, it requires a highly trained man who does little on the plane except navigate. Because of the lengthy training required, celestial navigators, particularly on Army Air Corps planes, were extremely scarce. Thus it was that loran provided the easy-to-use, accurate navigational system required to and the air fields so necessary for refueling.
 
The intensive bombing of Japan began as soon as air bases could be secured near enough for aircraft to make the round  trip. Accurate navigation was necessary not only for precision bombing, but also for carrying a maximum bomb load instead of a large reserve of gasoline. The loran system provided the means for this accurate navigation. By the end of World War II there were 75 standard loran stations serving the needs of aircraft and vessels in operation with over 75,000 receivers in use. Coverage in the Japanese and East China Sea Areas was extended in the 1950's
 
The intensive bombing of Japan began as soon as air bases could be secured near enough for aircraft to make the round  trip. Accurate navigation was necessary not only for precision bombing, but also for carrying a maximum bomb load instead of a large reserve of gasoline. The loran system provided the means for this accurate navigation. By the end of World War II there were 75 standard loran stations serving the needs of aircraft and vessels in operation with over 75,000 receivers in use. Coverage in the Japanese and East China Sea Areas was extended in the 1950's
Line 72: Line 74:
 
Alexander A. McKenzie, “LORAN-THE LATEST IN NAVIGATIONAL AIDS,” QST, Part I , vol. 29. pp. 12-16. December, 1945; part 2. vol. 30, pp. 54-57. January, 1946; part 3, vol. 30, pp, 62-65, February, 1946
 
Alexander A. McKenzie, “LORAN-THE LATEST IN NAVIGATIONAL AIDS,” QST, Part I , vol. 29. pp. 12-16. December, 1945; part 2. vol. 30, pp. 54-57. January, 1946; part 3, vol. 30, pp, 62-65, February, 1946
  
_|a5=The speed in which the loran system of navigation was researched, designed, developed, constructed, placed into operations, manned  24/7 by radio technicians at isolated regions of the globe, is hard to explain.  Even for a well-funded wartime crash program. Authors of this milestone proposal are not aware of anything similar to loran.
+
_|a5=
 +
The gee system . .
 +
Engineering projects of this magnitude required money, technology, staff, and ...
 +
Pierce acknowledges the existance of the British gee system under development in the early 1940s. Gee operated on the same principal. He also acknowledges that "Loran copied gee's concepts rather than techniques and may be said to have been invented in America in the sense in which Galileo is said to have invented the telescope".
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
The speed in which the loran system of navigation was researched, designed, developed, constructed, placed into operations, manned  24/7 by radio technicians at isolated regions of the globe, is hard to explain.  Even for a well-funded wartime crash program. Authors of this milestone proposal are not aware of anything similar to loran.
 
The proposal covers the time period between 1940 to 1946, i.e. the very beginning of loran. That period  was especially awesome,  noteworthy.  
 
The proposal covers the time period between 1940 to 1946, i.e. the very beginning of loran. That period  was especially awesome,  noteworthy.  
 
Offer the following websites can explain history ..history   
 
Offer the following websites can explain history ..history   
 
No electrical engineering effort / program has ever been set up and organized with such lasting .. with such reach as this ..
 
No electrical engineering effort / program has ever been set up and organized with such lasting .. with such reach as this ..
There was nothing like loran. Loran transmitters  Loran was first to be of service.
+
  HOLD  There was nothing like loran. Loran transmitters  Loran was first to be of service.
 
Pierce explains how the first air-borne and sea-borne trails had been so successful as to convince both the US Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.The rest is history.  
 
Pierce explains how the first air-borne and sea-borne trails had been so successful as to convince both the US Navy and the Royal Canadian Navy.The rest is history.  
 
By 1 October 1942 a chain of four loran transmitting stations in the US and Nova Scotia were on the air. Loran receivers began to be shipped and installed on selected naval vessels and a group of radio technicians were sent to training schools in Cambridge.
 
By 1 October 1942 a chain of four loran transmitting stations in the US and Nova Scotia were on the air. Loran receivers began to be shipped and installed on selected naval vessels and a group of radio technicians were sent to training schools in Cambridge.

Revision as of 03:08, 12 December 2010

This Proposal has not been submitted and may only be edited by the original author.
Pierce Loran.pdf
Loran1.jpg .png
Loran_chart.png


This is a test