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Milestone-Proposal:Invention of Holography by Dennis Gabor

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{{ProposalEdit|a1=Invention of Holography by Dennis Gabor|a2a=Imperial College, London|a2b=UKRI|a3=1947|a4=Gabor’s invention of holography was an unanticipated step and relied on his understanding of images in the Fourier domain.  He understood the importance of phase information, whereas previously only the magnitude spectra had been considered of any importance in the processing and reproduction of images.  With the aid of phase information, a three-dimensional reconstruction of an image is possible.  The practical realization of this concept requires a coherent light source, and therefore had to await the invention of the laser before substantial applications of holography could be achieved.  However prior to that, the invention led to improvements in electron microscopy and to new understandings and viewpoints on image processing and other forms of signal processing.   
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{{ProposalEdit|a1=Invention of Holography by Dennis Gabor|a2a=Imperial College, London|a2b=UK&RI|a3=1947 - circa 1960|a4=Gabor’s invention of holography was an unanticipated step and relied on his understanding of images in the Fourier domain.  He understood the importance of phase information, whereas previously only the magnitude spectra had been considered of any importance in the processing and reproduction of images.  With the aid of phase information, a three-dimensional reconstruction of an image is possible.  The practical realization of this concept requires a coherent light source, and therefore had to await the invention of the laser before substantial applications of holography could be achieved.  However prior to that, the invention led to improvements in electron microscopy and to new understandings and viewpoints on image processing and other forms of signal processing.   
 
At the time of the invention, Gabor evidently had a good opinion of his own achievement, and wrote in a letter to Max Born in June 1948 [9]:   
 
At the time of the invention, Gabor evidently had a good opinion of his own achievement, and wrote in a letter to Max Born in June 1948 [9]:   
    “…….  a new thing and I have no doubt that it is my luckiest find yet ….  ….. made me happier than anything I have done in the last 20 years …..
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|a5=(i)
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“…….  a new thing and I have no doubt that it is my luckiest find yet ….  ….. made me happier than anything I have done in the last 20 years …..|a5=(i)
 
The invention of holography by Gabor was in many respects ahead of other work and ideas in the processing of images, and as such was unique.   
 
The invention of holography by Gabor was in many respects ahead of other work and ideas in the processing of images, and as such was unique.   
 
G. Saxby [10] reports in his 1988 book that there were six and a half thousand papers on holography, of which he judged ‘….. more than a thousand … contain material of importance’.
 
G. Saxby [10] reports in his 1988 book that there were six and a half thousand papers on holography, of which he judged ‘….. more than a thousand … contain material of importance’.
 
X-ray holograms were achieved by 1987 at Lawrence Livermore laboratories, and it can be considered that some aspects of synthetic aperture radar systems have concepts in common with holography.
 
X-ray holograms were achieved by 1987 at Lawrence Livermore laboratories, and it can be considered that some aspects of synthetic aperture radar systems have concepts in common with holography.
 
 
For additional material about Gabor, his life and achievements, see also:
 
For additional material about Gabor, his life and achievements, see also:
 
 
1.  Biography of Fellows of Royal Society.  Written by T.E. Allibone:  doi: 10.1098/rsbm.1980.0004, Biogr. Mems Fell. R. Soc. 1980 26, 106-147
 
1.  Biography of Fellows of Royal Society.  Written by T.E. Allibone:  doi: 10.1098/rsbm.1980.0004, Biogr. Mems Fell. R. Soc. 1980 26, 106-147
 
 
2.  “Dennis Gabor – Contributions to Communication Theory & Signal Processing”, by P.C.J. Hill, EUROCON 2007 proceedings.
 
2.  “Dennis Gabor – Contributions to Communication Theory & Signal Processing”, by P.C.J. Hill, EUROCON 2007 proceedings.
 
 
3.    http://www.best-things-in-hungary.com/nobel-prize.html#gabor
 
3.    http://www.best-things-in-hungary.com/nobel-prize.html#gabor
 
 
4.    At IEEE GHN site:
 
4.    At IEEE GHN site:
        http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Dennis_Gabor
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http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Dennis_Gabor
 
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5.    Wikipedia:
 
5.    Wikipedia:
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Gabor
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Gabor
 
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6.    Biography (in Hungarian):
 
6.    Biography (in Hungarian):
        http://www.sasovits.hu/anyag/feltalal/gabor_d.htm
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http://www.sasovits.hu/anyag/feltalal/gabor_d.htm
 
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7.      Wikepedia entry in Hungarian (some added information not in the English language version):
 
7.      Wikepedia entry in Hungarian (some added information not in the English language version):
        http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A1bor_D%C3%A9nes_(fizikus)
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http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%A1bor_D%C3%A9nes_(fizikus)
 
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8.      Information about some of his inventions, etc. (in  Hungarian):
 
8.      Information about some of his inventions, etc. (in  Hungarian):
        http://www.feltalaloink.hu/tudosok/gabordenes/html/gabdental4.htm
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http://www.feltalaloink.hu/tudosok/gabordenes/html/gabdental4.htm
 
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9.      R.R.A. Syms ‘Practical Volume Holography’, Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, 1990
 
9.      R.R.A. Syms ‘Practical Volume Holography’, Oxford Science Publications, Clarendon Press, 1990
 
 
10.    G. Saxby ‘Practical Holography’, Prentice Hall, 1988.   
 
10.    G. Saxby ‘Practical Holography’, Prentice Hall, 1988.   
  
11    D. Gabor, Inventing the Future, Secker & Warburg, 1963, [and Pelican Books, London, 1964
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11    D. Gabor, Inventing the Future, Secker & Warburg, 1963, [and Pelican Books, London, 1964|a6=The invention of Holography was before its time - Gabor may not have used the term holography until much later, because ‘holograph’ had an alternative previous meaning, for a document in the handwriting of its original author.
|a6=The invention of Holography was before its time - Gabor may not have used the term holography until much later, because ‘holograph’ had an alternative previous meaning, for a document in the handwriting of its original author.
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His invention was many years before the invention of the laser (~1960) provided a source of sufficiently coherent light to make optical holography a practically useful and very significant technique.  However the 1947 invention itself led to a new understanding of signal processing of images, and to such ideas as the Gabor Transform and, with the Wigner Transform, was a basis for wavelets and other methods which are now widely used in digital signal processing.  Thus an important aspect of Gabor’s holography invention was the additional viewpoints that the concept brought to the field of signal processing, leading to many novel ideas.  Many of these ideas arose during his time at Imperial College.
 
His invention was many years before the invention of the laser (~1960) provided a source of sufficiently coherent light to make optical holography a practically useful and very significant technique.  However the 1947 invention itself led to a new understanding of signal processing of images, and to such ideas as the Gabor Transform and, with the Wigner Transform, was a basis for wavelets and other methods which are now widely used in digital signal processing.  Thus an important aspect of Gabor’s holography invention was the additional viewpoints that the concept brought to the field of signal processing, leading to many novel ideas.  Many of these ideas arose during his time at Imperial College.
r |a7=
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On or in the building of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London.
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r|a7=On or in the building of the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London.
 
Dennis Gabor moved from the BTH company to the Electrical Engineering Department of Imperial College, University of London, in 1949, where he was appointed Reader in Electronics.  He was promoted to Professor of Applied Electron Physics in the same Department in 1958.
 
Dennis Gabor moved from the BTH company to the Electrical Engineering Department of Imperial College, University of London, in 1949, where he was appointed Reader in Electronics.  He was promoted to Professor of Applied Electron Physics in the same Department in 1958.
Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, England, UK
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|a8=No|a9=There is a staffed desk at the Exhibition Road entrance of Imperial College, where visitors could ask for admittance or guidance;  a walk across an open courtyard to the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Building is required.|a10=Imperial College London|a11=Yes|a12=UKRI Section, London|a13name=|a13section=|a13position=|a13email=|a14name=|a14ou=|a14position=|a14email=|a15Aname=|a15Aemail=|a15Aname2=|a15Aemail2=|a15Bname=|a15Bemail=|a15Bname2=|a15Bemail2=|a15Cname=|a15Ctitle=|a15Corg=|a15Caddress=|a15Cphone=|a15Cemail=}}
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Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, SW7 2AZ, England, UK|a8=No|a9=There is a staffed desk at the Exhibition Road entrance of Imperial College, where visitors could ask for admittance or guidance;  a walk across an open courtyard to the Electrical and Electronic Engineering Building is required.|a10=Imperial College London|a11=Yes|a12=UKRI Section, London|a13name=|a13section=|a13position=|a13email=|a14name=|a14ou=|a14position=|a14email=|a15Aname=|a15Aemail=|a15Aname2=|a15Aemail2=|a15Bname=|a15Bemail=|a15Bname2=|a15Bemail2=|a15Cname=|a15Ctitle=|a15Corg=|a15Caddress=|a15Cphone=|a15Cemail=}}

Revision as of 11:23, 16 April 2012

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