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Milestone-Proposal:Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan

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|a9=All the plaques will be displayed within secure showcases at the intended sites of both GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation, which can be accessible to the public.
 
|a9=All the plaques will be displayed within secure showcases at the intended sites of both GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation, which can be accessible to the public.
 
|a10=GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation
 
|a10=GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation
|permission letter=Letter From Site Owner.pdf  
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|permission letter=Letter From Site Owner.pdf
 
|support letter=Letter from Section Chair.pdf
 
|support letter=Letter from Section Chair.pdf
 
|a4=The major historic significance concerning the birth and growth of the Japanese primary and secondary battery industries is described item for item in what follows.
 
|a4=The major historic significance concerning the birth and growth of the Japanese primary and secondary battery industries is described item for item in what follows.
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1. Preface 2. Primary Batteries 2.1 Carbon-Zinc Dry Battery 2.2 Alkaline Manganese Battery 2.3 Silver Oxide Battery 2.4 Mercury Battery 2.5 Nickel-Zinc Battery 2.6 Zinc-Air Battery 2.7 Lithium Battery 3. Secondary Batteries 3.1 Normal Temperature Operation Type 3.1.1 Lead-Acid Battery 3.1.2 Nickel-Cadmium Battery 3.1.3 Nickel-Iron Battery 3.1.4 Nickel-Zinc Battery 3.1.5 Zinc-Chlorine Battery 3.1.6 Zinc-Bromine Battery 3.1.7 Redox Flow Battery 3.2 High Temperature Operation Type 3.2.1 Sodium-Sulfur Battery 3.2.2 Lithium-Iron Sulfide Battery 4. Fuel Cells 4.1 Normal Temperature Operation Type 4.1.1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell 4.1.2 Liquid Fuel Cell 4.2 Moderate High Temperature Operation Type 4.2.1 Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte Fuel Cell 4.2.2 Molten Salt Electrolyte Fuel Cell 4.2.3 Solid Electrolyte Fuel Cell 5. Conclusion References
 
1. Preface 2. Primary Batteries 2.1 Carbon-Zinc Dry Battery 2.2 Alkaline Manganese Battery 2.3 Silver Oxide Battery 2.4 Mercury Battery 2.5 Nickel-Zinc Battery 2.6 Zinc-Air Battery 2.7 Lithium Battery 3. Secondary Batteries 3.1 Normal Temperature Operation Type 3.1.1 Lead-Acid Battery 3.1.2 Nickel-Cadmium Battery 3.1.3 Nickel-Iron Battery 3.1.4 Nickel-Zinc Battery 3.1.5 Zinc-Chlorine Battery 3.1.6 Zinc-Bromine Battery 3.1.7 Redox Flow Battery 3.2 High Temperature Operation Type 3.2.1 Sodium-Sulfur Battery 3.2.2 Lithium-Iron Sulfide Battery 4. Fuel Cells 4.1 Normal Temperature Operation Type 4.1.1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell 4.1.2 Liquid Fuel Cell 4.2 Moderate High Temperature Operation Type 4.2.1 Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte Fuel Cell 4.2.2 Molten Salt Electrolyte Fuel Cell 4.2.3 Solid Electrolyte Fuel Cell 5. Conclusion References
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|supporting materials=[[Media:Figure.pdf|Figures]]
 
|submitted=No
 
|submitted=No
 
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Revision as of 12:52, 19 August 2013

Docket #:2013-14

This is a draft proposal, that has not yet been submitted. To submit this proposal, click on "Edit with form", check the "Submit this proposal for review" box at the bottom, and save the page.


Is the achievement you are proposing more than 25 years old? Yes

Is the achievement you are proposing within IEEE’s fields of interest? (e.g. “the theory and practice of electrical, electronics, communications and computer engineering, as well as computer science, the allied branches of engineering and the related arts and sciences” – from the IEEE Constitution) Yes

Did the achievement provide a meaningful benefit for humanity? Yes

Was it of at least regional importance? Yes

Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to pay for the milestone plaque(s)? Yes

Has an IEEE Organizational Unit agreed to arrange the dedication ceremony? Yes

Has the IEEE Section in which the milestone is located agreed to take responsibility for the plaque after it is dedicated? Yes

Has the owner of the site agreed to have it designated as an Electrical Engineering Milestone? Yes


Year or range of years in which the achievement occurred:

1893-1971: The year 1893 is the one, in which Sakizo Yai acquired a Japanese patent for the first battery invention. Actually, Yai’s battery invention and his establishment of ‘Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company’ gave birth to the Japanese dry battery industry. However, the year of either Yai’s battery invention or his company establishment can not be accurately identified. Hence, in this proposal the year 1893 of Yai’s patent acquirement has to be regarded as the birth year of the Japanese battery industry.warning.pngString representation "1893-1971: The … ttery industry." is too long.

Title of the proposed milestone:

Birth and Growth of Primary and Secondary Battery Industries in Japan

Plaque citation summarizing the achievement and its significance:

Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company gave birth to Japanese battery industry, and was entirely devoted to its growth. Following this glorious triumph, GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation pioneered a huge market of primary and secondary batteries installed not only in industrial equipment but also in home appliances, which contributed to the advance of Japanese battery industry and consumer electronics.

In what IEEE section(s) does it reside?

Kansai Section

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) which have agreed to sponsor the Milestone:

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) paying for milestone plaque(s):

Unit: {{{Unit}}}
Senior Officer Name: Senior officer name masked to public

IEEE Organizational Unit(s) arranging the dedication ceremony:

Unit: {{{Unit}}}
Senior Officer Name: Senior officer name masked to public

IEEE section(s) monitoring the plaque(s):

IEEE Section: Kansai Section
IEEE Section Chair name: Section chair name masked to public

Milestone proposer(s):

Proposer name: Proposer's name masked to public
Proposer email: Proposer's email masked to public

Please note: your email address and contact information will be masked on the website for privacy reasons. Only IEEE History Center Staff will be able to view the email address.

Street address(es) and GPS coordinates of the intended milestone plaque site(s):

-Intended plaque sites of GS Yuasa Corporation: (1) GS Yuasa International Ltd., Kyoto Head Office Address: 1, Inobanba-cho, Nishinosho, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8520 Japan GPS coordinates: 34.981091N, 135.728056E (2) GS Yuasa International Ltd., Tokyo Head Office Address: 1-7-13, Shiba-Koen, Minato-ku. Tokyo, 105-0011 Japan GPS coordinates: 35.657403N, 139.752515E (3) GS Yuasa International Ltd., Kyoto Head Office, Global Technical Head Quarters Address: 1, Inobanba-cho, Nishinosho, Kisshoin, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8520 Japan GPS coordinates: 34.977733N, 135.723327E

- Intended plaque sites of Panasonic Corporation: (1) Panasonic Corporation, Automotive & Industrial Systems Company Head Office Address: 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka, 571-8506 Japan GPS coordinates: 34.739220N, 135.572667E (2) Panasonic Corporation, Energy Device Business Division Head Office Address: 1-1 Matsushita-cho, Moriguchi City, Osaka, 570-8511 JAPAN GPS coordinates: 34.727641N, 135.566782E (3) Panasonic Corporation, Portable Rechargeable Battery Business Group Head Office Address: 222-1 Kaminaizen, Sumoto City, Hyogo, 656-8555 Japan GPS coordinates: 34.343814N, 134.860671E

Describe briefly the intended site(s) of the milestone plaque(s). The intended site(s) must have a direct connection with the achievement (e.g. where developed, invented, tested, demonstrated, installed, or operated, etc.). A museum where a device or example of the technology is displayed, or the university where the inventor studied, are not, in themselves, sufficient connection for a milestone plaque.

Please give the address(es) of the plaque site(s) (GPS coordinates if you have them). Also please give the details of the mounting, i.e. on the outside of the building, in the ground floor entrance hall, on a plinth on the grounds, etc. If visitors to the plaque site will need to go through security, or make an appointment, please give the contact information visitors will need.

-Intended plaque sites of GS Yuasa Corporation: (1) GS Yuasa International Ltd., Kyoto Head Office: Entrance Hall on the ground floor. (2) GS Yuasa International Ltd., Tokyo Head Office: Entrance Hall on the ground floor. (3) GS Yuasa International Ltd., Kyoto Head Office, Global Technical Head Quarters: Entrance Hall on the ground floor.

-Intended plaque sites of Panasonic Corporation: (1) Panasonic Corporation, Automotive & Industrial Systems Company Head Office: Entrance Hall on the ground floor. (2) Panasonic Corporation, Energy Device Business Division Head Office: Entrance Hall on the ground floor. (3) Panasonic Corporation, Portable Rechargeable Battery Business Group Head Office: Entrance Hall on the ground floor.

Are the original buildings extant?

As for both GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation, the original buildings are extant. On the other hand, as for Yai Dry Battery Company, this company no more exists, and hence the site of plaque for this company is now being searched for.

Details of the plaque mounting:

All the plaques are planned to be placed in the entrance halls on the ground floor of the Head Offices of both GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation.

How is the site protected/secured, and in what ways is it accessible to the public?

All the plaques will be displayed within secure showcases at the intended sites of both GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation, which can be accessible to the public.

Who is the present owner of the site(s)?

GS Yuasa Corporation and Panasonic Corporation

A letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner(s) giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property:

File:Letter From Site Owner.pdf

A letter or email from the appropriate Section Chair supporting the Milestone application:

File:Letter from Section Chair.pdf

What is the historical significance of the work (its technological, scientific, or social importance)?

The major historic significance concerning the birth and growth of the Japanese primary and secondary battery industries is described item for item in what follows. 1. Historic Overview before Birth of Japanese Battery Industry Since the first electrochemical battery was invented by Alessandro Volta in 1799 in Italy [1], a variety of batteries were developed, such as Daniell battery in 1836, Poggendorff battery in 1842, Grove battery in 1844, etc., all of which were ‘wet batteries’. Up to that point, all existing batteries would be permanently drained when all their chemical reactions were spent [2]. In 1859 Gaston Planté invented a lead-acid battery, which could be recharged by passing a reverse current through it. This Planté battery was the first-ever rechargeable battery, which is regarded as the origin of the secondary battery industry [2]. On the other hand, in 1866 George Leclanche invented a battery which consisted of a zinc anode and a manganese dioxide cathode wrapped in a porous material. This Leclanche battery achieved very quick success in telegraphy, signalling and electric bell work, which laid the base of manufacturing the ‘dry battery’. In fact, on the basis of this battery, Carl Gassner invented in 1887 the world’s first commercially successful dry battery, which became the prototype for the primary battery industry [2,3].

2. Birth and Growth of Primary Battery Industry in Japan 2.1 Birth of Japanese Dry Battery Industry It is written in Yai’s brochure that in 1885 Sakizo Yai invented a dry battery and established ‘Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company’, where the documentary evidence for the year of either Yai’s battery invention or his company establishment can not be accurately identified [4]. However, there is the historical evidence that in 1893 Yai acquired a Japanese patent (No. 2,086) for the dry battery invention, and that the Yai’s dry battery was installed in the seismograph (assembled by Imperial University of Science, presently University of Tokyo) exhibited in EXPO 1893 held in Chicago, commanding strong attention from visitors [4]. In 1885 Yai invented a battery-powered clock, for which he obtained the Japan’s first patent (No. 1205) related to electricity in 1891. Since the battery used in this clock was a wet one, which had the disadvantage of requiring maintenance and being unusable when they froze during the winter. Hence he began his quest to invent a dry battery, but there was a great difficulty that chemicals were leaking out of the positive terminal, and the metal became corroded and unusable. Thus Yai tried desperately to impregnate paraffin in a carbon rod, until he succeeded in inventing the first dry battery in Japan. At that time, however, ordinary households could not yet enjoy the benefit of electricity even in Tokyo, where candles and oil lamps were still used for light source, and accordingly battery-powered products were so few that the demand for batteries was very little. Under such circumstances, the Sino-Japanese War broke out in August 1894, when the Leclanche battery was the latest one available in Japan, which was, however, in danger of freezing in the Manchuria’s harsh winter cold. Hence the Yai battery was boldly attempted for use in telegraphy in the War, resulting in substantial success. Soon after, an extra edition of newspaper reported the success achieved by the Yai battery in the Manchuria’s cold, which revealed the existence of the Yai battery, and subsequently made Yai’s company grow successfully [4,5]. Specifically, Yai established in 1910 the sales division of his company in Kanda-ku, Tokyo, and then built a factory in Asakusa-ku, Tokyo, which grew to the largest in Japan with the annual production volume of more than 200,000 units as of 1920. Unfortunately, however, in September 1923 the Great Kanto Earthquake of magnitude 7.9 struck the Kanto Plane, by which all facilities of his company were burnt to ashes. Nevertheless, Yai soon managed to rebuild a new factory in Kawasaki near Tokyo (see Fig. 1), where numbers of commercially successful batteries were produced (see Fig. 2) [4]. In this way, Yai paved the way for the dry battery business. In fact, the functional qualities of Yai batteries were evaluated officially as the best in terms of discharge and lifetime characteristics [4]. Thus Yai beat out domestic and foreign competitors, and grew to reign supreme over the Japanese dry battery market. Eventually, he became known as the "king of dry battery" [4,5]. However, unfortunately he passed away by stomach cancer in 1927, and furthermore Yai’s company was not inherited by his successors. Consequently, this company name disappeared from the registry of the Japan Battery and Appliance Industries Association (JBAA) in 1950 [4,5].

2.2 Primary Batteries for Consumer Electronics Following Yai’s glorious triumph, numbers of start-ups were established, among which ‘Matsushita Electric Co., Ltd.’ founded by Konosuke Matsushita in Osaka in 1918, achieved quantum leaps in the dry battery business by making a stepping-stone of the battery-powered lamp (see Fig. 3) developed in 1923 dedicatedly for use in bicycles [4]. With great success in battery business, ‘Matsushita Electric’ was reconstructed in 1935 as a household appliance company, named ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.’, operating ‘Matsushita Dry Battery Co., Ltd.’ and ‘National Storage Battery Co., Ltd.’ as subsidiaries, both of which achieved dramatic progress after World War II by developing a great variety of primary and secondary batteries, respectively.

Specifically, ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial’ released in quick succession a great number of carbon- zinc (or manganese), silver-oxide, alkaline-manganese, and lithium primary batteries in the mid 1950’s through the early 1970’s (see Figs. 4, 5, and 6), by which a huge market of consumer electronics was created in Japan [6], where it should be added that (a) ‘Hi-Top’ improved dramatically the life length and temperature property of ‘Hyper’, while ‘Neo Hi-Top’ obtained 17 countries’ patents and 943 domestic patents and utility model rights, and furthermore, a series of these carbon-zinc batteries of Fig. 4 contributed primarily to opening up a whole new market of home appliances, with the greatest market share of dry batteries in Japan, (b) alkaline-manganese batteries of Fig. 5 cultivated new fields of household appliances, such as tape- recorders, 8mm movie cameras, strobes, shavers, etc., due to strong-load and low-temperature characteristics, (c) lithium primary batteries of Fig. 6 released first in 1971 contributed distinctively to opening up a new market of digital appliances, such as electronic watches, personal computers, digital cameras, mobile terminal devices, etc., and (d) the name of ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.’ was changed to the present ‘Panasonic Corporation’ in 2008.

3. Growth of Secondary Battery Industry in Japan 3.1 Birth of Japanese Lead-Acid Battery Industry In 1895 Genzo Shimadzu succeeded in manufacturing the first prototype lead-acid battery in Kyoto, which gave birth to the Japanese lead-acid battery industry. At that time the electric grids were so unstable that blackouts occurred very frequently all over Japan. Hence high-capacity batteries were indispensable for standby power supplies, which were, however, dependent mostly on imports. Thereby Shimadzu took great pains to devise a high-capacity battery, until he succeeded in developing the one of capacity 150Ah in 1904, which was attempted for use in the backup power supply in his factory. However, he never dreamed that a total of 400 units of the same products of capacity 150Ah would be ordered from the Japanese Navy to be adopted for wireless telegraphy in the Battle of Tsushima in May 1905 [7]. This proven performance exemplified the practical importance of lead-acid batteries, which enhanced further the manufacturing technologies. In fact, with the rapidly rising demand for lead-acid batteries for use in telephone/telegraph stations, battleships, backup power supplies, etc., he made every effort to tool up production in his factory, until at last in 1912 he acquired the Japan’s first patent (No. 22,232) for manufacturing lead-acid batteries [7]. In 1917 Shimadzu established ‘Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd.’ in Kyoto. After a continual process of trial and error, at last in 1919 he managed to invent an epoch-making methodology for manufacturing lead-acid batteries, called ‘reactive lead oxide production method’ [7,8], for which he acquired not only a Japanese patent (No. 41,728) in February 1922, but also French, English, USA, and German patents in November 1922, May 1923, May 1926, and October 1929, respectively, together with other 11 countries’ patents, including Italian, Austrian, Belgian, Czech, Swedish, Canadian, and Australian patents. As a result, his factory had to have incessant visitors from home and abroad to look into the manufacturing process in operation [7]. Thus it can be seen that Shimadzu contributed outstandingly to the advance of the world’s lead-acid battery industry. Following Shimadzu’s great achievements, Shichizaemon Yuasa started ‘Yuasa Storage Battery Co., Ltd.’ in 1918, which built the Japan’s largest battery factory in 1919 in Takatsuki, Osaka, (see Fig. 7), to meet the latent demand for lead-acid batteries, which were expected to grow after World War I (1914- 1918) so as to be installed in submarines, railroad facilities, mines, telephone stations, standby power systems, locomotives, automobiles, etc. [9]

3.2 Motorization in Japan With the rapid advance of Japanese motorization starting from the early 1950’s, the number of automobiles in Japan exceeded one million at the end of 1953. As the demand for automotive batteries grew at an accelerated pace, a variety of high-capacity batteries with low-temperature characteristics were newly developed in the early 1950’s (for example, see Fig. 8) [7,9]. In addition, with the rising demand for motorcycles, a new type of compact batteries packed in plastic containers were also produced in the mid 1950’s (for example, see Fig. 9) [7,9,10]. Thus the share of automotive batteries rapidly climbed to the top in the Japanese secondary battery market in 1970’s, which was achieved mainly by the big three battery companies, ‘Japan Storage Battery’, ‘Yuasa Storage Battery’, and ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial’ [7,9,10], where it should be added that the first two companies were merged into ‘GS Yuasa Corporation’ in 2004, and the last one was changed to ‘Panasonic Corporation’ in 2008, as stated before..

3.3 Ni-Cd batteries for Industrial Equipment and Home Appliances The nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery, which is a type of rechargeable battery, was originally invented by Waldemar Jungner in Sweden in 1899. Due to its distinctive features of much higher energy density, smaller/lighter property, over-charge/discharge tolerance, higher performance at low temperatures, and longer lifetime property, as compared with those of the lead-acid battery, the demand for Ni-Cd batteries grew dramatically for use not only in industrial equipment but also in consumer electronics [11]. Specifically, in Japan the development of Ni-Cd batteries started in 1953, to be substituted for nickel- iron batteries so far produced mainly for safety lamps used in coal mines [7]. Subsequently, Ni-Cd batteries were targeted at standby power supplies installed in trains of private/public railway companies such as Kintetsu’s limited express (see Fig. 10), JNR’s Tokaido-Shinkansen (Bullet Trains), etc., radio relay stations of HNK, etc., in the late 1950’s through the late 1960’s, where batteries were of “pocket type”, constructed of nickel-plated steel pockets containing nickel and cadmium active materials [7,9,10]. Furthermore, triggered by the Japanese Building Standards Act revised in 1971, which obliged buildings to be provided with emergency lighting, the demand for high-capacity Ni-Cd batteries suddenly increased for use in industrial equipment, such as backup power supplies (see Fig. 11), uninterruptible power supplies, disaster-prevention wireless systems, aircraft starting, load adjustment, engine starting for backup turbines, etc.[7,9,10,12]

On the other hand, expecting much of future diffusion of mobile/portable/cordless home appliances, ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial’ acquired in 1962 a USA patent (No. 3,041,388) for manufacturing sintered-plate Ni-Cd batteries [6,10]. However, it was ‘SANYO Electric Co. Ltd.’ (merged into ‘Panasonic Corporation’ in 2011) that released a Ni-Cd battery, called ‘Cadnica‘, for the first time in Japan in 1964 mainly for use in home appliances (see Fig. 12) [13]. Soon after, ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial’ started the commercialization of Ni-Cd batteries in 1970 (see Fig. 13) [13], which contributed timely to broadening the application of Ni-Cd batteries not only to household products, such as portable/cordless/wireless appliances, electric power tools, etc., but also to miniature button cells installed in photographic equipment, hand-held lamps (flashlight or torch), computer memories, toys, novelties, etc. [6,10,12] Thus, it can be seen that Ni-Cd batteries also built a firm position in the secondary battery market in 1970’s [12].

Eventually, it can be concluded that ‘Yai Dry Battery Limited Partnership Company’ not only gave birth to the Japanese dry battery industry, but also contributed primarily to its growth, and that ‘GS Yuasa Corporation‘ and ‘Panasonic Corporation’ pioneered a huge market of primary/secondary batteries installed in industrial equipment as well as in home appliances, and contributed outstandingly to the advance of Japanese battery industry and consumer electronics.

What obstacles (technical, political, geographic) needed to be overcome?

The Japanese battery industry encountered a number of obstacles in the start-up and growth stages, all of which were timely overcome, as outlined in what follows.

1. Obstacle before Birth of Dry Battery The first obstacle which Sakizo Yai faced before he invented the first dry battery, is briefed as follows: Yai invented in 1885 a battery-powered clock, called the “continuous electric clock”, which was patented in 1891 as the first Japanese patent related to electricity [4], but the battery used in this clock was the wet one, which had the disadvantage of being unusable when it froze by the winter cold. Hence he began his quest to invent a dry battery, where there was the difficulty that chemicals were leaking out of the positive terminal, and the metal became corroded and unusable. Thus he worked consistently on impregnating paraffin in a carbon rod, until he managed to overcome the difficulty by inventing an impregnation method of paraffin, resulting in the dry battery invention [4].

2. Obstacle after Invention of Yai Battery Even after Yai invented the first dry battery, there was a serious obstacle to the progress of the battery industry. At that time, ordinary households could not yet enjoy the benefit of electricity even in Tokyo, where candles and oil lamps were still used for light source, and accordingly the demand for battery- powered products was very little. Under such circumstances, the Sino-Japanese War broke out in August 1894, when even the latest Leclanche battery had no function in the Manchuria’s harsh winter cold. Hence Yai got a rush order from the Japanese Army for 50 units of dry batteries, which were successfully utilized for telegraphy in the War [4]. Soon after, an extra edition of newspaper reported the successful achievement of the Yai battery in the Manchuria’s cold, which generated recognition of the Yai battery, and consequently made Yai’s company expand enough to build a new factory in Tokyo, growing to the one with the largest annual production in Japan [7].

3. Obstacle to Manufacturing Lead-Acid Batteries Since Shimadzu established ‘Japan Storage Battery’ in 1917, he had tried to explore company’s own manufacturing technologies. At that time there was a severe obstacle that the quality of any material used in anode plates of lead-acid batteries was too unstable for their life length to be practically secured. Even though there was an easy choice of importing the manufacturing methodology of such a high quality material, Shimadzu stuck firm to devising it completely in-house [7]. Through a sequence of trials and errors he at last invented in 1919 an epoch-making manufacturing methodology, called ‘reactive lead oxide production method’, for which he acquired not only a Japanese patent, but also French, English, USA, and German patents, together with other 11 countries’ patents [7], as stated before. Thus Shimadzu contributed outstandingly to the advance of the world’s lead-acid battery industry.

4. Great Kanto Earthquake Even after Shimadzu invented this revolutionary method, there was still a substantial obstacle to promoting diffusion of lead-acid batteries. At that time, it was the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923 and the NHK’s start of radiobroadcast in 1925 that caused a drastic change in the demand for lead-acid batteries as well as dry batteries. Specifically, upon urgent request for the infrastructure construction to recover from the Great Kanto Earthquake, a tremendous number of lead-acid batteries had to be manufactured for use in backup power supplies installed in office buildings (for example, see Fig. 14), factories, telephone stations, train sheds, electric power substations, etc. On the other hand, to cope with the rising demand for radio receivers, provoked by the start of public radiobroadcast service by NHK, numbers of start-ups began to produce specific types of dry batteries dedicatedly for radio receivers, which were, however, supplied mostly by Yai’s company [4]. In addition, according as new broadcast stations were opened in prefectural metropolises one after another throughout Japan, a great number of lead-acid batteries were also put into the market (for example, see Fig. 15; A-type battery for the filament voltage, and B-type for the plate voltage in vacuum tube radio receivers) [7,9].

5. Postwar Reconstruction The catastrophic destruction all over Japan by numbers of air raids during World War II (1939-45) was the biggest obstacle to the progress of the Japanese battery industry. Just after the War till 1952, GHQ (General Headquarters of the Allied Powers), led by General Douglas MacArthur, enacted widespread military, political, economic, and social reforms in Japan. To accelerate the postwar reconstruction, GHQ carried out a full-scale deregulation in October 1949 for the automobile production so far restricted rigidly to trucks, resulting in an intense trigger to the motorization in Japan, which created a drastic demand for automotive lead-acid batteries [7], as stated before. In parallel to this motorization, upon urgent request for industrial reconstruction all over Japan, the demand for high-capacity lead-acid batteries grew dramatically for use in backup power supplies installed in factories, office buildings, grid/railroad power substations, telephone stations, etc. [7,9,10], as stated before. In addition to lead-acid batteries, nickel-iron batteries were also produced in the late 1940’s through the mid 1950’s dedicatedly for safety lamps used in coal mines in large quantity (for example, the annual production volume as of 1950 was 159,000 units) [7]. Subsequently, in the late 1950’s through the mid 1960’s, triggered by the rapid advance of public/private railroad systems, including Tokaido-Shinkansen (Bullet Trains) opened in 1964, the demand for Ni-Cd batteries of pocket type grew suddenly for use in standby power supplies of electric trains, radio relay stations of NHK, etc., [7,9,10], as stated before. On the other hand, the drastic progress of carbon-zinc batteries starting in the 1950’s, represented by those of Fig. 4, expanded firmly the postwar market of battery-run appliances, such as lighters for cooking stoves, stove burners, clocks, etc., where it should be added that the annual production volume of ‘Hyper’ grew to 120 million units in 1955 [6]. Thus carbon-zinc dry batteries contributed consistently to enhancing the electrification of Japanese postwar daily life [6,10]. Thus, it can be seen that in the late 1940’s through the mid 1960’s the Japanese battery industry contributed extensively not only to the postwar reconstruction of social infrastructures all over Japan but also to the magnificent diffusion of Japanese consumer electronics.

What features set this work apart from similar achievements?

There are numbers of distinctive features of Japanese primary and secondary battery industries in the start-up and growth stages, which are summarized item for item in what follows.

1. Unique Birth of Japanese Battery Industry The start-up stage of Japanese primary and secondary battery industries was distinctive in that there were two great figures, Sakizo Yai and Genzo Shimadzu, who contributed primarily to the birth as well as to the growth of Japanese primary and secondary battery industries, respectively, as briefed in what follows.

1.1 Sakizo Yai Yai was born in Nagaoka, Niigata Prefecture, Japan, in 1863. At the age of 13, he became an apprentice at a watch shop in Tokyo. As already stated, in 1885 he invented a battery-powered clock, for which he attained the Japan’s first patent related to electricity in 1891. Since the battery used in this clock was a wet one with the disadvantage of being unusable in the freeze-up, he began his quest to invent a dry battery. He worked diligently as a hand at a science university laboratory, where he consulted at length with academics on impregnating paraffin in a carbon rod, until he succeeded in devising the first dry battery by finding a sophisticated impregnation method [4,5]. Thus Yai gave birth to the Japanese dry battery industry. As already stated above, after numbers of troubles and difficulties, Yai’s company managed to release in quick succession numbers of commercially successful batteries of Fig. 2, and grew to reign supreme over the Japanese dry battery market [4]. Thus Yai also contributed to the growth of the Japanese dry battery industry.

1.2 Genzo Shimadzu Genzo Shimadzu was born in Kyoto in 1869. In 1895 he succeeded in manufacturing the first prototype lead-acid battery. In 1896, only a year after Dr. Roentgen discovered X-rays, he succeeded in producing X-ray images, and moreover, in 1909 he developed the Japan’s first medical X-ray device [14]. Subsequently, in 1917 he established ‘Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd.’ As already stated, this new company faced a great difficulty that the quality of any material used in anode plates was too unstable for practical use. After a great deal of trial and error Shimadzu invented in 1919 a revolutionary methodology, called ‘reactive lead oxide production method’, for which he acquired not only a Japanese patent but also 15 foreign countries’ patents [7]. Thus, it can be seen that Shimadzu contributed outstandingly to the birth and growth of the Japanese lead-acid battery industry. . 2. Contribution to Postwar Reconstruction As already stated, in 1949 GHQ implemented a new law of deregulating the automobile production in Japan so far restricted strictly to trucks, which served as an intense trigger to Japanese motorization, and therefore created a drastic demand for automotive lead-acid batteries. In parallel to this motorization, upon urgent request for the postwar reconstruction all over Japan, the demand for high-capacity lead-acid batteries grew dramatically for backup power supplies installed in factories, office buildings, power substations, telephone stations, etc. [7,9,10]. On the other hand, in the late 1940’s through the mid 1950’s, a great amount of nickel-iron batteries were also produced mainly for safety lamps used in coal mines, which contributed greatly to the postwar mining industry [7], as stated before. Thus it can be seen that the secondary battery industry, led primarily by ‘GS Yuasa Corporation’ and ‘Panasonic Corporation’, contributed enormously to the postwar reconstruction all over Japan as well as the motorization in Japan.

3. Contribution to Consumer Electronics As already stated, ‘Matsushita Electric Industries’ together with ‘SANYO Electric’ released a tremendous amount of carbon-zinc, silver-oxide, alkaline-manganese, Ni-Cd, and lithium batteries in quick succession in the mid 1950’s through the early 1970’s, with which a huge market of consumer electronics was created in Japan, where it should be noticed that (i) carbon-zinc batteries, represented by ‘Hyper’, ‘Hi-Top’, and ‘Neo Hi-Top’ of Fig. 4, expanded drastically their application fields in consumer electronics [6], with the greatest share of the total production volume of primary batteries in Japan [12], (ii) alkaline-manganese batteries broadened their applications to newly introduced appliances, such as tape-recorders, 8-mm movie cameras, strobes, shavers, etc., due to strong load performance and low- temperature characteristics [6,12], (iii) Ni-Cd batteries contributed greatly to expanding their applications not only to new consumer products, such as portable electronics, cordless/wireless appliances, electric power tools, etc., but also to miniature button cells installed in photographic equipment, flashlight/torch lamps, computer memory, toys, novelties, etc.[6,10,12], (iv) lithium batteries released first in 1971 contributed extensively to the widespread diffusion of today’s digital appliances, such as digital watches, personal computers, digital cameras, mobile terminal devices, etc. [6,12,13], and (v) ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. Ltd.’ together with all of its subsidiaries and ‘SANYO Electric’ have been merged into ‘Panasonic Corporation’, as already stated. Thus it can be seen that ‘Panasonic Corporation’ contributed distinctively to creating a huge market of primary and secondary batteries for use in consumer electronics.

4. Overseas Expansion After World War II, Japan resumed the international trade, firstly working on the export of automotive lead-acid batteries to South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, South America, and USA, among which South East Asia became the largest market in the 1950’s [7]. Accordingly the Japanese auto industry started car exports to South East Asia in the early 1960’s, where on-site car assemblies were also undertaken. In step with this business trend, the big three battery companies, ‘Japan Storage Battery’, ‘Matsushita Electric Industrial’, and ‘Yuasa Storage Battery’ established joint business ventures for manufacturing automotive batteries in the late 1960’s through the mid 1970’s in South East Asian countries, such as Thailand, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia, etc. [7,9,10]

On the other hand, as for the dry battery business, ‘Matsushita Electric Industries’ established joint business ventures for manufacturing dry batteries in the early 1960’s through the early 1970’s, not only in Asian countries, such as Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, India, Indonesia, and Philippines, but also in South American countries, such as Peru, Costa Rica, and Brazil [6].

Thus it can be seen that ‘Panasonic Corporation’ and ‘GS Yuasa Corporation’ contributed extensively to the progress of both primary and secondary battery industries in Asia and South America in the early 1960’s through the mid 1970’s [6,7,9,10].

References to establish the dates, location, and importance of the achievement: Minimum of five (5), but as many as needed to support the milestone, such as patents, contemporary newspaper articles, journal articles, or citations to pages in scholarly books. At least one of the references must be from a scholarly book or journal article.

  1. IEEE Milestone in Electrical Engineering and Computing: “Volta's Electrical Battery Invention, 1799”; see http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Alessandro_Volta
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_battery
  3. http://www.batteryfacts.co.uk/BatteryHistory/Gassner.html
  4. History Editorial Board of Japan Battery and Appliance Industries Association (JBAA), ed., “History of Japan Dry Battery Industry”, JBAA, Tokyo, 1960 (in Japanese).
  5. http://www.baj.or.jp/e/knowledge/history01.html
  6. History Editorial Board of Matsushita Battery Industry Co., Ltd., ed., “50 Years’ Visual History of Dry Battery Production”, Matsushita Battery Industry Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1981 (in Japanese).
  7. History Editorial Board of Japan Storage Battery, Co., Ltd., ed., “100 Years’ History of Japan Storage Battery”, Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Kyoto, 1995 (in Japanese).
  8. http://www.gs-yuasa.com/us/corporate/pdf/a4_history(e).pdf
  9. Editorial Board of 75 Years’ Company History, ed., “75 Years’ History of Yuasa”, Yuasa Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1993 (in Japanese).
  10. History Editorial Board of National Storage Battery Co., Ltd., ed., “50 Years of National Storage Battery”, National Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1985 (in Japanese).
  11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickel%E2%80%93cadmium_battery
  12. H. Ogawa, “Recent trend of battery technology”, National Technological Report, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 780-798, Dec. 1981 (in Japanese).
  13. http://panasonic.net/ec/company/history.html
  14. http://www.barascientific.com/profile/Shimadzu/thai/shimadzu_memorial.php

Appendix

References [4], [6], [7], [9], [10], and [12] were written in Japanese, for which English summaries are added to this Appendix in what follows.

Appendix 1. Reference [4]: History Editorial Board of Japan Battery and Appliance Industries Associ- ation (JBAA), ed., “History of Japan Dry Battery Industry”, JBAA, Tokyo, 1960 (in Japanese).

This book describes the details of history of the dry battery industry in Japan, from its birth to 1960, containing 640 pages. A part of the table of those contents which are related to this proposal, is as follows:

Preliminaries: Outline of Progress of Primary Batteries Part I: Historical Overview Chapter 1: Introduction of Batteries into Japan and Shozan Sakuma Chapter 2: Meiji Era Chapter 3: Taisho Era Chapter 4: Showa Era; Prior Period (till the end of World War II) Chapter 5: Showa Era; Latter Period (after the end of World War II)

Appendix 2. Reference [6]: History Editorial Board of Matsushita Battery Industry Co., Ltd., ed., “50 Years’ Visual History of Dry Battery Production”, Matsushita Battery Industry Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1981 (in Japanese).

This book represents a summary of 50 years’ visual history of dry battery production of Matsushita Battery Industry Co., Ltd., containing 177 pages. The table of contents is as follows:

Chapter 1: Taisho12-Showa20 (1923-1945) -Release of cannon-ball shaped battery-powered shell lamps -Company’s own production of dry batteries Chapter 2: Showa20-Showa29 (1945-1954) -Postwar wrenching time and construction Chapter 3: Showa29-Showa38 (1954-1963) -Release of ‘Hyper’ dry battery Chapter 4: Showa38-Showa44 (1963-1969) -Release of ‘Hi-Top’ dry battery Chapter 5: Showa44-Showa54 (1969-1979) -Release of ‘Neo Hi-Top’ dry battery Chapter 6: Showa54-Showa56 (1979-1981) -Establishment of Matsushita Battery Industry Co., Ltd. Appendix: -Progress of battery technologies -Advance of developing products -Overseas business: History and present status -Awards -Chronology

Appendix 3. Reference [7]: History Editorial Board of Japan Storage Battery, Co., Ltd., ed., “100 Years’ History of Japan Storage Battery”, Japan Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Kyoto, 1995 (in Japanese).

This book describes the details of 100 years’ history in 1895-1995 of Japan Storage Battery, Co., Ltd., containing 392 pages. The table of contents is as follows:

Part 1: Birth Stage (1895-1917) 1. History before foundation 2. Start of producing storage batteries Part 2: Start-Up Stage (1917-1931) 1. Foundation of storage battery business 2. Invention of epoch-making manufacturing methodology 3. Expansion of civil demand Part 3: Expansion of Military Demand (1931-1945) 1. Enlargement of Production System 2. Management under war footing Part 4: Postwar Reconstruction (1945-1960) 1. Business reconstruction and economic recovery 2. Strategy for market transition and innovation Part 5: High-Growth Period (1969-1973) 1. Motorization 2. New product development 3. Overseas expansion 4. Strategy for environmental variation Part 6: Business Innovation 1. Aggressive management against oil crisis 2. Change of automobile market 3. Challenge for advanced technologies 4. Strategy for information society 5. Development of lighting business 6. Rapid growth of miniature batteries 7. Development of new business fields 8. Improvement of management culture 9. Enhancement of globalization 10. Toward the 21st Century Part 7: Information Materials Part 8: Chronology

Appendix 4. Reference [9]: Editorial Board of 75 Years’ Company History, ed., “75 Years’ History of Yuasa”, Yuasa Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1993 (in Japanese).

This book describes the details of 75 years’ history in 1918-1993 of Yuasa Storage Battery, Co., Ltd., containing 315 pages. The table of contents is as follows:

Chapter 1: From company foundation to the end of War. Chapter 2: Postwar devastation and reconstruction Chapter 3: Motorization and its induced rapid growth Chapter 4: Strategy for international era Chapter 5: From high growth to low growth Chapter 6: Stepping stone to electronics era Chapter 7: Challenge for the 21st Century Episodes and Information Materials Documents and Chronology

Appendix 5. Reference [10]: History Editorial Board of National Storage Battery Co., Ltd., ed., “50 Years of National Storage Battery”, National Storage Battery Co., Ltd., Osaka, 1985 (in Japanese).

This book summarizes 50 years’ history in 1935-1985 of National Storage Battery, Co., Ltd., containing 134 pages. The table of contents is as follows:


Part 1: Preliminaries Part 2: 50 Years’ History of National Storage Battery -Era of Foundation and Start-Up; The Showa10’s -Era of Hardship and Reconstruction; The Showa20’s -Era of Construction and Expansion; The Showa30’s -Era of Growth and Jump; The Showa40’s -Era of Creation and Reversion; The Showa50’s Part 3: Changes of Factory Layouts Part 4: Development of New Products and Technological Activities -Start from Zero; The Showa10’s -Development of Products toward Versatility; The Showa20’s -Birth of Alkaline Batteries and Enhancement of Mass Production; The Showa30’s -Rush of New Technologies and New Products; The Showa40’s -Demand Expansion and Applied Equipment; The Showa50’s -Representative Products at Present -Series of New Products Part 5: 50 Years’ Marketing Activities -Pre- and Post-War Marketing; The Showa10’s -Marketing for Untapped Niche; The Showa20’s -Improvement of Marketing System; The Showa30’s -Enhancement of Marketing Strategy; The Showa40’s -Leap for Tomorrow; The Showa50’s Part 6: Toward New Future Chronology

Appendix 6. Reference [12]: H. Ogawa, “Recent trend of battery technology”, National Technological Report, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 780-798, Dec. 1981 (in Japanese).

This report surveys the trends in primary and secondary battery technologies which were developed to solve electronics and energy issues arising in the practice. The table of contents is as follows.

1. Preface 2. Primary Batteries 2.1 Carbon-Zinc Dry Battery 2.2 Alkaline Manganese Battery 2.3 Silver Oxide Battery 2.4 Mercury Battery 2.5 Nickel-Zinc Battery 2.6 Zinc-Air Battery 2.7 Lithium Battery 3. Secondary Batteries 3.1 Normal Temperature Operation Type 3.1.1 Lead-Acid Battery 3.1.2 Nickel-Cadmium Battery 3.1.3 Nickel-Iron Battery 3.1.4 Nickel-Zinc Battery 3.1.5 Zinc-Chlorine Battery 3.1.6 Zinc-Bromine Battery 3.1.7 Redox Flow Battery 3.2 High Temperature Operation Type 3.2.1 Sodium-Sulfur Battery 3.2.2 Lithium-Iron Sulfide Battery 4. Fuel Cells 4.1 Normal Temperature Operation Type 4.1.1 Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell 4.1.2 Liquid Fuel Cell 4.2 Moderate High Temperature Operation Type 4.2.1 Phosphoric Acid Electrolyte Fuel Cell 4.2.2 Molten Salt Electrolyte Fuel Cell 4.2.3 Solid Electrolyte Fuel Cell 5. Conclusion References

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