# Milestone-Nomination:Invention of Public-key Cryptography

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− | Traditionally secure communication involved exchange of a secret key, with key distribution a major impediment. James Ellis was first to prove that a symmetric secret-key system is unnecessary, and | + | Traditionally secure communication involved exchange of a secret key, with key distribution a major impediment. James Ellis was first to prove that a symmetric secret-key system is unnecessary, and Clifford Cocks and Martin Williamson were first to show how such 'public-key cryptography' could be achieved. By 1975 the scientists at GCHQ had developed the essential principles but the research was kept secret until 1997; meanwhile, researchers at Stanford and MIT publ<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1246437919477_766"></span>ished public-key algorithms. |

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## Revision as of 09:54, 1 July 2009

Docket Number: 2008-15

Proposal Link: http://www.ieeeghn.org/wiki/index.php/Milestone-Proposal:Invention_of_Public-key_Cryptography

## Proposed citation in English

Invention of Public-key Cryptography, 1969-1975

Traditionally secure communication involved exchange of a secret key, with key distribution a major impediment. James Ellis was first to prove that a symmetric secret-key system is unnecessary, and Clifford Cocks and Martin Williamson were first to show how such 'public-key cryptography' could be achieved. By 1975 the scientists at GCHQ had developed the essential principles but the research was kept secret until 1997; meanwhile, researchers at Stanford and MIT published public-key algorithms.

## Historic significance of this work: its importance to the evolution of electrical and computer engineering and science and its importance to regional/national/international development.

Historical significance and supporting material documentation is attached.

## What features or characteristics set this work apart from similar achievements?

The research was carried out in complete secrecy at GCHQ and could not be revealed until it was decided that no further benefit to national security could be achieved by not revealing it. Like the cryptanalysis done during World War 2 at Bletchley Park (now an IEEE Historical Milestone site, since March 2003), the significance of the work was available for public assessment only long after the research was actually carried out.

## Please attach a letter in English, or with English translation, from the site owner giving permission to place IEEE milestone plaque on the property.

*The letter is necessary in order to process your nomination form. Click the Attachments tab to upload your letter.*

HISTORICAL_Significance.doc

SUPPORTING_Material_for_GCHQ_PKC_Invention.doc