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List of Achievements Suitable for Milestones

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A selective list of technical achievements in IEEE's fields of interest which might be suitable for proposal as milestones. The Region number where the achievement took place is shown. This is by no means all of them.  Please feel free to add others -- or even better -- to propose one of these achievements as a milestone, please follow the '''[[Milestones:Proposing a Milestone|Milestone Guidelines]]'''.  
 
A selective list of technical achievements in IEEE's fields of interest which might be suitable for proposal as milestones. The Region number where the achievement took place is shown. This is by no means all of them.  Please feel free to add others -- or even better -- to propose one of these achievements as a milestone, please follow the '''[[Milestones:Proposing a Milestone|Milestone Guidelines]]'''.  
  
<br>'''DATE MILESTONE PERSON(S) LOCATION REGION'''<br>1617 Napier's Bones Napier, Edinburgh, Scotland 8<br>1621 Slide rule Oughtred, Albury, England 8<br>1623 Mechanical Calculator, Schichard Tuebingen, Germany 8<br>1642 advanced calculator Pascal, Paris, France 8<br>1671 reliable calculator Liebniz Mainz, Germany 8<br>1729 discovery of conduction Gray London 8<br>1746 Leyden jar Unknown Leyden, Netherlands 8<br>1790 galvanism Galvani Bologna, Italy 8<br>1808 arc lighting Davy London, England 8<br>1810 electrolytic telegraph von Sommerin,Munich, Germany 8<br>1819 discovery of current/ magnetic Oersted Denmark 8<br>1824 electromagnet Sturgeon London, England 8<br>1824 galvanometer Ampere Paris, France 8<br>1824 thermocouple Seebech Berlin, Germany 8<br>1828 electric motor Henry Albany, NY, USA 1<br>1828 microphone Wheatstone London, England 8<br>1828 Ohm's law/resistance Ohm Cologne, Germany 8<br>1830 bimetallic thermostat Ure Glasgow, Scotland 8<br>1831 discovery of induction Faraday London, England 8<br>1833 difference engine Babbage Cambridge, England 8<br>1833 electric telegraph key Gauss/Weber Goettingen, Germany 8<br>1834 early electric light Lindsay Dundee, Scotland 8<br>1834 electric telegraph Cooke&amp;WheatsLondon, England 8<br>1837 Analytical engine Babbage, London, England 8<br>1837 practical electric motor Davenport, Rutland, VT,USA 1<br>1840 electroplating Wright, Birmingham, England 8<br>1840 first "program" Ada Augusta, London, England 8<br>1844 Washington-Baltimore telegraph Morse Maryland, USA 2<br>1844 Washington-Baltimore telegraph Morse Maryland, USA 2<br>1850 Kirchoff's laws Kirchoff, Koenigsberg, Germany 8<br>1854 electric loom Bonelli Turin, Italy 8<br>1854 printing telegraph Hughes Kentucky, USA 3<br>1856 shuttle-wound armature von Siemens Berlin, Germany 8<br>1859 discovery of cathode rays Pluker Bonn, Germany 8<br>1859 storage battery, Plante, France 8<br>1860 arc welding Wilde, London 8<br>1863 early generator Paccinotti Italy 8<br>1868 primary dry cell Leclanche France 8<br>1873 dc generator/lighthouses Gramme Belgium 8<br>1874 early electric car Salomans Kent, England 8<br>1875 electric dental drill Green Kalamazoo, MI, USA 4<br>1875 quadruplex telegraphy Edison New Jersey, USA 1<br>1877 dynamic microphone Curtis&amp;Reddi,Boston 1<br>1877 dynamic microphone Siemens Germany 8<br>1877 resistance welding Thompson, Philadelphia, PA,USA 2<br>1877 telephone switchboard Holmes, Boston, MA, USA 1<br>1878 alternator Gramme&amp;FontaFrance 8<br>1878 alternator Siemens Germany 8<br>1879 commercial use of arc-lighting Brush Cleveland, OH, USA 2<br>1880 Contributions of Lewis Latimer, New York 1<br>1880 early hydroelectric site numerous Grand Rapids, MI, USA 4<br>1880 first electrically lit town numerous Wabash, Indiana 4<br>1881 commercial music over wire Cahill Holyoke, Mass., USA 1<br>1881 solar-powered pump Adams Bombay, India 10<br>1881 transformer Gaulard&amp;GibbParis, France 8<br>1882 "Elektromote" trackless car von Siemens Halensee, Germany 8<br>1882 commercial electric fan Crocker&amp;CurtNew York, NY, USA 1<br>1882 early hydroelectric site Brush Minneapolis,MN,USA 4<br>1882 early hydroelectric site Calder&amp;BarreSurrey, England 8<br>1882 electric iron Seely New York, NY, USA 1<br>1882 electric mine railway von Siemens Saxony, Germany 8<br>1882 Vulcan street plant Edison Appleton, WI,USA 4<br>1883 Edison effect Edison New Jersey, USA 1<br>1885 magnetic circuit theory Hopkinson London, England 8<br>1885 mass production of Edison lampsThomson Lynn, MA 1<br>1886 bayonet cap light bulb Swan Newcastle-on-Tyne 8<br>1886 electric heater Burton Richmond,VA,USA 3<br>1886 electric submarine Peral Spain 8<br>1886 electrolytic reduction of alumiHall Oberlin, OH. USA 2<br>1886 electrolytic reduction of alumiHerault Paris, France 8<br>1886 First electric trolley system inumerous Montgomery,AL,USA 3<br>1886 proof/theory of electromag. wavHertz Karlsruhe, Germany 8<br>1887 electric elevator von Siemens Mannheim, Germany 8<br>1888 ac induction motor Tesla New York 1<br>1888 ac induction motor Ferraris Turin, Italy 8  
+
<br>'''DATE MILESTONE PERSON(S) LOCATION REGION'''<br>1617 Napier's Bones Napier, Edinburgh, Scotland 8<br>1621 Slide rule Oughtred, Albury, England 8<br>1623 Mechanical Calculator, Schichard, Tuebingen, Germany 8<br>1642 advanced calculator Pascal, Paris, France 8<br>1671 reliable calculator Liebniz Mainz, Germany 8<br>1729 discovery of conduction Gray London 8<br>1746 Leyden jar Unknown Leyden, Netherlands 8<br>1790 galvanism Galvani Bologna, Italy 8<br>1808 arc lighting Davy London, England 8<br>1810 electrolytic telegraph von Sommerin,Munich, Germany 8<br>1819 discovery of current/ magnetic Oersted Denmark 8<br>1824 electromagnet Sturgeon London, England 8<br>1824 galvanometer Ampere Paris, France 8<br>1824 thermocouple Seebech Berlin, Germany 8<br>1828 electric motor Henry Albany, NY, USA 1<br>1828 microphone Wheatstone London, England 8<br>1828 Ohm's law/resistance Ohm Cologne, Germany 8<br>1830 bimetallic thermostat Ure Glasgow, Scotland 8<br>1831 discovery of induction Faraday London, England 8<br>1833 difference engine Babbage Cambridge, England 8<br>1833 electric telegraph key Gauss/Weber Goettingen, Germany 8<br>1834 early electric light Lindsay Dundee, Scotland 8<br>1834 electric telegraph Cooke&amp;WheatsLondon, England 8<br>1837 Analytical engine Babbage, London, England 8<br>1837 practical electric motor Davenport, Rutland, VT,USA 1<br>1840 electroplating Wright, Birmingham, England 8<br>1840 first "program" Ada Augusta, London, England 8<br>1844 Washington-Baltimore telegraph Morse Maryland, USA 2<br>1844 Washington-Baltimore telegraph Morse Maryland, USA 2<br>1850 Kirchoff's laws Kirchoff, Koenigsberg, Germany 8<br>1854 electric loom Bonelli Turin, Italy 8<br>1854 printing telegraph Hughes Kentucky, USA 3<br>1856 shuttle-wound armature von Siemens Berlin, Germany 8<br>1859 discovery of cathode rays Pluker Bonn, Germany 8<br>1859 storage battery, Plante, France 8<br>1860 arc welding Wilde, London 8<br>1863 early generator Paccinotti Italy 8<br>1868 primary dry cell Leclanche France 8<br>1873 dc generator/lighthouses Gramme Belgium 8<br>1874 early electric car Salomans Kent, England 8<br>1875 electric dental drill Green Kalamazoo, MI, USA 4<br>1877 dynamic microphone Curtis&amp;Reddi,Boston 1<br>1877 dynamic microphone Siemens Germany 8<br>1877 resistance welding Thompson, Philadelphia, PA,USA 2<br>1877 telephone switchboard Holmes, Boston, MA, USA 1<br>1878 alternator Gramme&amp;Fonta, France 8<br>1878 alternator Siemens Germany 8<br>1879 commercial use of arc-lighting Brush Cleveland, OH, USA 2<br>1880 Contributions of Lewis Latimer, New York 1<br>1880 early hydroelectric site numerous Grand Rapids, MI, USA 4<br>1880 first electrically lit town numerous Wabash, Indiana 4<br>1881 commercial music over wire Cahill Holyoke, Mass., USA 1<br>1881 solar-powered pump, Adams, Bombay, India 10<br>1881 transformer Gaulard&amp;Gibb,Paris, France 8<br>1882 "Elektromote" trackless car, von Siemens, Halensee, Germany 8<br>1882 commercial electric fan Crocker&amp;Curt, New York, NY, USA 1<br>1882 early hydroelectric site Brush Minneapolis,MN,USA 4<br>1882 early hydroelectric site Calder&amp;BarreSurrey, England 8<br>1882 electric iron Seely, New York, NY, USA 1<br>1882 electric mine railway von Siemens Saxony, Germany 8<br>1885 magnetic circuit theory Hopkinson London, England 8<br>1885 mass production of Edison lampsThomson Lynn, MA 1<br>1886 bayonet cap light bulb Swan Newcastle-on-Tyne 8<br>1886 electric heater Burton Richmond,VA,USA 3<br>1886 electric submarine Peral Spain 8<br>1886 electrolytic reduction of alumiHall Oberlin, OH. USA 2<br>1886 electrolytic reduction of alumiHerault Paris, France 8<br>1886 First electric trolley system, inumerous, Montgomery,AL,USA 3<br>1886 proof/theory of electromag. wavHertz Karlsruhe, Germany 8<br>1887 electric elevator von Siemens Mannheim, Germany 8<br>1888 ac induction motor Tesla New York 1<br>1888 ac induction motor Ferraris Turin, Italy 8  
  
1888&nbsp;Edward Weston Precision Meters, USA<br>1889 automatic telephone exchange Strowger Kansas City,MO,USA 4<br>1889 Marmelos Zero Hydro Plant numerous Minas Gerais, Brazil 9<br>1890 electric motor car Morrison Demoines, Iowa 4<br>1890 high-frequency generator Thomson Chicago, USA 4<br>1890 long-distance ac transmission numerous Williamette Falls, OR 6<br>1890 Punched-card machine Holerith Washington,DC,USA 2<br>1893 Coney Island electric escalatorReno Brooklyn,NY,USA 1<br>1895 x-rays Roentgen Wuerzburg,Germany 8<br>1897 crt Braun Strausbourg,Germany 8<br>1897 electron Thomson Cambridge, England 8<br>1898 wireless power transmission Tesla New York,NY,USA 1<br>1899 loading coil Pupin AT&amp;T 1<br>1899 magnetic recording Poulsen Denmark 8<br>1901 electric typewriter Cahill Washington,DC,USA 2<br>1901 mercury discharge lamp Cooper HewitNew York, NY, USA 1<br>1902 early broadcast StubblefieldMurphy,KY,USA 3<br>1902 oscilloscope Ryan Ithaca,NY,USA 1<br>1906 crystal detector Dunwoody&amp;PicWashington,DC,USA 2<br>1906 crystal detector Braun Germany 8<br>1906 sound film Lauste Brixton, England 8<br>1906 telephone amplifier tube von Lieben Vienna, Austria 8<br>1906 triode De Forrest US 1  
+
1888&nbsp;Edward Weston Precision Meters, USA<br>1889 automatic telephone exchange Strowger Kansas City,MO,USA 4<br>1889 Marmelos Zero Hydro Plant numerous Minas Gerais, Brazil 9<br>1890 electric motor car Morrison Demoines, Iowa 4<br>1890 high-frequency generator, Thomson, Chicago, USA 4<br>1890 long-distance ac transmission numerous, Williamette Falls, OR 6<br>1890 Punched-card machine Holerith Washington,DC,USA 2<br>1893 Coney Island electric escalatorReno Brooklyn,NY,USA 1<br>1895 x-rays Roentgen Wuerzburg,Germany 8<br>1897 crt Braun Strausbourg,Germany 8<br>1897 electron Thomson Cambridge, England 8<br>1898 wireless power transmission Tesla New York,NY,USA 1<br>1899 loading coil Pupin AT&amp;T 1<br>1899 magnetic recording Poulsen Denmark 8<br>1901 electric typewriter Cahill Washington,DC,USA 2<br>1901 mercury discharge lamp, Cooper HewitNew York, NY, USA 1<br>1902 early broadcast, Stubblefield, Murphy,KY,USA 3<br>1902 oscilloscope Ryan, Ithaca,NY,USA 1<br>1906 crystal detector Dunwoody&amp;PicWashington,DC,USA 2<br>1906 crystal detector Braun Germany 8<br>1906 sound film Lauste Brixton, England 8<br>1906 telephone amplifier tube von Lieben Vienna, Austria 8<br>1906 triode De Forrest US 1  
  
1906 Electromagnetic seismograph, Dorpat,&nbsp;Estonia or St. Petersburg, Russia, 8<br>1907 Bell Labs founded Jewett, CartNew York, NY, USA 1<br>1907 cinema projection system Bell&amp;Howell US 4<br>1907 upright vacuum cleaner Spangler New Berlin, OH, USA 2<br>1910 Ni-Cd battery Jungner Sweden 8<br>1910 radio direction finder Bellini&amp;TosiBoulogne, France 8<br>1910 tungsten filament Coolidge US 1<br>1911 automobile self starter Kettering Dayton,OH,USA 2<br>1914 electric traffic light Benesch Cleveland,OH,USA 2<br>1915 1st transcontinental telephone Bell &amp; WatsoSan Francisco 6<br>1915 2nd transcontinental telephone Bell &amp; WatsoWashington,DC,USA 3<br>1916 radio telephone numerous Arlington, Virginia 2<br>1916 radio telephone numerous San Francisco 6<br>1917 superheterodyne Armstrong Columbia University 1<br>1917 superheterodyne Levy France 8<br>1917 VHF Marconi Wales 8<br>1918 electric refrigerator Wales et al.Detroit, US 4<br>1918 practical ac clock Warren Ashland,MA,USA 1<br>1919 neutrodyne Hazeltine Hoboken,NJ,USA 1<br>1919 permanent electrostatic fields Eguchi Japan 10<br>1921 magnetron Hall Schenectady,NY,USA 1<br>1923 PNJ Interconnection numerous Valley Forge,PA,USA 1<br>1924 stereo phonography Keller Bell Labs 1<br>1924 stereo phonography Blumlein London 8<br>1925 cinemascope Chretien France 8<br>1925 electrodynamic loudspeaker numerous Schenectady,NY,USA 1<br>1925 quartz crystal watch Numerous New York 1<br>1926 all-electric gramaphone Brunswick etChicago, USA 4<br>1926 mechanical TV/1st TV license Baird London, England 8<br>1926 South Africa lightning researchnumerous Capetown, SA 8<br>1927 1st commercial talkie (Jazz Sinnumerous Hollywood, USA 6<br>1927 all-electric juke box Harrison (WeChicago 4<br>1927 differential analyzer Bush Cambridge,MA,USA 1<br>1927 negative feedback amp Black Bell Labs 1<br>1927 pentode Holst/Tellegen Eindhoven, Neth. 8<br>1927 pop-up toaster Strite Stillwater,MN,USA 4<br>1927 technicolor Kalmus et alCambridge,MA,USA 1<br>1928 all-electronic tv Farnsworth USA 6<br>1928 Geiger tube Geiger&amp;MulleTuebingen, Germany 8<br>1929 coaxial cable numerous New York, NY, USA 1<br>1929 electro-encephalogram Berger Jena, Germany 8<br>1929 electron microscope Knoll&amp;Ruska Berlin, Germany 8<br>1929 recording tape Pfleumer Austria 8<br>1930 FM Armstrong Columbia University 1<br>1931 commercial electric guitar RickenbackerLA,CA,USA 6<br>1931 crystal microphone Sawyer Cleveland Hts., OH 2<br>1931 electric razor Schick Stamford,CT,USA 1<br>1931 iconoscope Zworykin Pittsburgh,PA,USA 2<br>1932 TVA numerous Muscle Shoals, AL 3<br>1933 Wind turbine connected to grid Balaclava, Ukraine 8<br>1934 "Tone Wheel" electric organ Hammond&amp;HaneChicago, IL, USA 4<br>1934 Diesel-electric traction Kettering Cleveland, OH, USA 2<br>1934 radio beam aerial navigation Plendl Rechlin, Germany 8<br>1935 early radar Watson-Watt London 8<br>1935 IBM mass-prod. electric typewrinumerous Endicott,NY,USA 1<br>1936 AEG "magnetophone" rec. &amp; tape numerous Berlin, Germany 8<br>1936 Boulder Dam numerous Boulder City, NV,USA 6<br>1938 klystron Varian brothSilicon Valley 6<br>1938 Xerography Carlson New York, NY, USA 1<br>1939 1st electronic-digital computerAtanasoff&amp;BeAmes,IA,USA 4<br>1941 Honeywell electronic autopilot numerous Minneapolis,MN,USA 4<br>1941 Grandpa's Knob Wind Turbine Putnam Grandpa's Knob, VT 1<br>1943 IBM Mark I numerous Endicott,NY,USA 1<br>1943 Naval Computing Machine lab numerous Dayton,OH,USA 2<br>1943 Rad Lab/microwave radar numerous Cambridge,MA,USA 1<br>1943 special-pupose electronic compuNewman&amp;FloweBuckinghamshire,Eng 8<br>1946 Project Diana (ASC Electronics numerous Wall, NJ, USA 1<br>1948 Atomic clock/C-14 dating Libby Chicago,IL,USA 4<br>1948 experimental cable TV numerous Oregon, USA 6<br>1948 information theory Shannon Bell Labs, NJ 1<br>1948 LP Goldmark&nbsp; CBS Laboratories, New York, USA 1<br>1949 electric guitar Fender Anaheim, CA, USA 6<br>1950 Whirlwind Forrester etIBM 1<br>1951 junction transistor Shockley et New Jersey, USA 1<br>1952 Cinerama numerous New York 1<br>1952 Compiler Hopper Harvard University 1<br>1952 Magnetic core memory Wang Harvard University 1<br>1952 SAGE numerous Lincoln Labs 1<br>1952 Univac I Mauchley&amp;EckPhiladelphia,PA,USA 2<br>1954 Electronic music synthesizer Olsen New York 1<br>1954 MASER Townes et alBell Labs 1<br>1954 Regency portable transistor radPies &amp; Koch Indianapolis, IN, USA 4<br>1955 Shockley Lab Shockley Palo Alto, CA, USA 6<br>1956 Commercial nuclear power generanumerous Shippingport,PA,USA 2<br>1956 FORTRAN programming language Backus New York 1<br>1956 IBM comm. magnetic memory core numerous San Jose, CA, USA 6  
+
1906 Electromagnetic seismograph, Dorpat,&nbsp;Estonia or St. Petersburg, Russia, 8<br>1907 Bell Labs founded Jewett, Cart, New York, NY, USA 1<br>1907 cinema projection system, Bell&amp;Howell, US 4<br>1907 upright vacuum cleaner Spangler New Berlin, OH, USA 2<br>1910 Ni-Cd battery Jungner Sweden 8<br>1910 radio direction finder Bellini&amp;TosiBoulogne, France 8<br>1910 tungsten filament, Coolidge, US 1<br>1911 automobile self starter Kettering Dayton,OH,USA 2<br>1914 electric traffic light Benesch, Cleveland,OH,USA 2<br>1915 1st transcontinental telephone Bell &amp; Watson, San Francisco 6<br>1915 2nd transcontinental telephone Bell &amp; Watson, Washington,DC,USA 3<br>1916 radio telephone, numerous, Arlington, Virginia 2<br>1916 radio telephone, numerous, San Francisco 6<br>1917 superheterodyne, Armstrong, Columbia University, New York City,&nbsp;1<br>1917 superheterodyne Levy, France 8<br>1917 VHF Marconi Wales 8<br>1918 electric refrigerator Wales et al.Detroit, US 4<br>1918 practical ac clock Warren Ashland,MA,USA 1<br>1919 neutrodyne Hazeltine, Hoboken, NJ,USA 1<br>1919 permanent electrostatic fields, Eguchi, Japan 10<br>1921 magnetron Hall Schenectady,NY,USA 1<br>1923 PNJ Interconnection numerous Valley Forge,PA,USA 1<br>1924 stereo phonography Keller Bell Labs 1<br>1924 stereo phonography Blumlein London 8<br>1925 cinemascope Chretien France 8<br>1925 electrodynamic loudspeaker numerous Schenectady,NY,USA 1<br>1925 quartz crystal watch Numerous New York 1<br>1926 all-electric gramaphone Brunswick etChicago, USA 4<br>1926 mechanical TV/1st TV license Baird London, England 8<br>1926 South Africa lightning research, numerous, Capetown, SA 8<br>1927 1st commercial talkie (Jazz Sinnumerous Hollywood, USA 6<br>1927 all-electric juke box Harrison (WeChicago 4<br>1927 differential analyzer Bush Cambridge,MA,USA 1<br>1927 negative feedback amp Black Bell Labs 1<br>1927 pentode Holst/Tellegen Eindhoven, Neth. 8<br>1927 pop-up toaster Strite Stillwater,MN,USA 4<br>1927 technicolor Kalmus et alCambridge,MA,USA 1<br>1928 all-electronic tv Farnsworth USA 6<br>1928 Geiger tube Geiger&amp;MulleTuebingen, Germany 8<br>1929 coaxial cable, numerous, New York, NY, USA 1<br>1929 electro-encephalogram Berger Jena, Germany 8<br>1929 electron microscope, Knoll&amp;Ruska, Berlin, Germany 8<br>1929 recording tape Pfleumer Austria 8<br>1930 FM, Armstrong, Columbia University, New York City&nbsp;1<br>1931 commercial electric guitar RickenbackerLA,CA,USA 6<br>1931 crystal microphone Sawyer Cleveland Hts., OH 2<br>1931 electric razor Schick Stamford,CT,USA 1<br>1931 iconoscope Zworykin, Pittsburgh,PA,USA 2<br>1932 TVA numerous Muscle Shoals, AL 3<br>1933 Wind turbine connected to grid Balaclava, Ukraine 8<br>1934 "Tone Wheel" electric organ Hammond&amp;HaneChicago, IL, USA 4<br>1934 Diesel-electric traction Kettering Cleveland, OH, USA 2<br>1934 radio beam aerial navigation Plendl Rechlin, Germany 8<br>1935 early radar Watson-Watt London 8<br>1935 IBM mass-prod. electric typewrinumerous Endicott,NY,USA 1<br>1936 AEG "magnetophone" rec. &amp; tape numerous Berlin, Germany 8<br>1936 Boulder Dam numerous Boulder City, NV,USA 6<br>1938 klystron Varian brothSilicon Valley 6<br>1938 Xerography Carlson New York, NY, USA 1<br>1939 1st electronic-digital computerAtanasoff&amp;BeAmes,IA,USA 4<br>1941 Honeywell electronic autopilot numerous Minneapolis,MN,USA 4<br>1941 Grandpa's Knob Wind Turbine, Putnam Grandpa's Knob, VT 1<br>1943 IBM Mark I numerous Endicott,NY,USA 1<br>1943 special-pupose electronic compuNewman&amp;FloweBuckinghamshire,Eng 8<br>1946 Project Diana (ASC Electronics numerous Wall, NJ, USA 1<br>1948 Atomic clock/C-14 dating Libby Chicago,IL,USA 4<br>1948 experimental cable TV numerous Oregon, USA 6<br>1948 information theory Shannon Bell Labs, NJ 1<br>1948 LP Goldmark&nbsp; CBS Laboratories, New York, USA 1<br>1949 electric guitar Fender Anaheim, CA, USA 6<br>1950 Whirlwind Forrester etIBM 1<br>1951 junction transistor Shockley et New Jersey, USA 1<br>1952 Cinerama numerous New York 1<br>1952 Compiler Hopper Harvard University 1<br>1952 Magnetic core memory Wang Harvard University 1<br>1952 SAGE numerous Lincoln Labs,&nbsp;Massachusetts 1 (awaiting IEEE&nbsp;BoD approval)<br>1952 Univac I Mauchley&amp;EckPhiladelphia,PA,USA 2<br>1954 Electronic music synthesizer Olsen New York 1<br>1954 MASER Townes et al, Bell Labs 1<br>1954 Regency portable transistor radPies &amp; Koch Indianapolis, IN, USA 4<br>1955 Shockley Lab Shockley Palo Alto, CA, USA 6<br>1956 Commercial nuclear power generanumerous Shippingport,PA,USA 2<br>1956 FORTRAN programming language, Backus, New York 1<br>1956 IBM comm. magnetic memory core numerous San Jose, CA, USA 6  
  
 
1956 Flight data recorder ("black box")  
 
1956 Flight data recorder ("black box")  
  
1956 IBM 305 Random Access Method of Accounting and Control (RAMAC) System, San Jose, CA, USA 6<br>1958 TI silicon junction transistor Teal (TI) Dallas, TX, USA 5<br>1958 van Allen Belts Van Allen Ames, IA,USA 4<br>1959 point-to-point microwave radio numerous Vancouver, Canada 7<br>1959 Texaco/TR computer-controlled rnumerous Port Arthur, TX, USA 5<br>1959 tunnel diode Esaki Tokyo, Japan 10<br>1960 COBOL numerous Washington,DC,USA 2<br>1962 GE LED numerous Syracuse, NY,USA 1<br>1962 Implantable pacemaker Greatbach Clarence, New York 1<br>1962 Unimation industrial obot numerous Danbury, MA,USA 1<br>1963 Langmuir Lab numerous New Mexico 6<br>1964 BASIC Kurtz Hanover,NH,USA 1<br>1964 IBM 360 numerous Endicott,NY,USA 1<br>1964 Laser Holography numerous Ann Arbor,MI,USA 4<br>1964 voltage-controlled music synth.Moog Trumansburg, NY, USA 1<br>1965 PDP-8 numerous Boston, MA, USA 1<br>1966 Fiber optics numerous Corning, NY 1<br>1967 Dolby sound Dolby London, England 1<br>1968 Computer mouse Engelbart etPalo Alto, CA, USA 6<br>1970 PASCAL Wirth Zurich,Switzerland 8  
+
1956 IBM 305 Random Access Method of Accounting and Control (RAMAC) System, San Jose, CA, USA 6<br>1958 TI silicon junction transistor Teal (TI) Dallas, TX, USA 5<br>1958 van Allen Belts Van Allen Ames, IA,USA 4<br>1959 point-to-point microwave radio numerous Vancouver, Canada 7<br>1959 Texaco/TR computer-controlled rnumerous Port Arthur, TX, USA 5<br>1959 tunnel diode, Esaki, Tokyo, Japan 10<br>1960 COBOL numerous Washington,DC,USA 2<br>1962 GE LED numerous Syracuse, NY,USA 1<br>1962 Implantable pacemaker Greatbach Clarence, New York 1<br>1962 Unimation industrial obot numerous Danbury, MA,USA 1<br>1963 Langmuir Lab numerous New Mexico 6<br>1964 BASIC Kurtz Hanover,NH,USA 1<br>1964 IBM 360 numerous Endicott,NY,USA 1<br>1964 Laser Holography numerous Ann Arbor,MI,USA 4<br>1964 voltage-controlled music synth.Moog Trumansburg, NY, USA 1<br>1965 PDP-8 numerous Boston, MA, USA 1<br>1966 Fiber optics numerous Corning, NY 1 (awaiting IEEE&nbsp;BoD final approval)<br>1967 Dolby sound Dolby London, England 1<br>1968 Computer mouse Engelbart etPalo Alto, CA, USA 6<br>1970 PASCAL Wirth Zurich,Switzerland 8  
  
 
1970 Codd's Relational Database paper, San Jose, CA, USA 6<br>1971 INTEL 4004 Grove et al.Silicon Valley, USA 6<br>1971 Microprocessor Hoff et al. Silicon Valley, USA 6<br>1972 Space War: "1st Computer Game"Brand Stanford University, USA 6  
 
1970 Codd's Relational Database paper, San Jose, CA, USA 6<br>1971 INTEL 4004 Grove et al.Silicon Valley, USA 6<br>1971 Microprocessor Hoff et al. Silicon Valley, USA 6<br>1972 Space War: "1st Computer Game"Brand Stanford University, USA 6  

Revision as of 18:50, 17 February 2012

A selective list of technical achievements in IEEE's fields of interest which might be suitable for proposal as milestones. The Region number where the achievement took place is shown. This is by no means all of them.  Please feel free to add others -- or even better -- to propose one of these achievements as a milestone, please follow the Milestone Guidelines.


DATE MILESTONE PERSON(S) LOCATION REGION
1617 Napier's Bones Napier, Edinburgh, Scotland 8
1621 Slide rule Oughtred, Albury, England 8
1623 Mechanical Calculator, Schichard, Tuebingen, Germany 8
1642 advanced calculator Pascal, Paris, France 8
1671 reliable calculator Liebniz Mainz, Germany 8
1729 discovery of conduction Gray London 8
1746 Leyden jar Unknown Leyden, Netherlands 8
1790 galvanism Galvani Bologna, Italy 8
1808 arc lighting Davy London, England 8
1810 electrolytic telegraph von Sommerin,Munich, Germany 8
1819 discovery of current/ magnetic Oersted Denmark 8
1824 electromagnet Sturgeon London, England 8
1824 galvanometer Ampere Paris, France 8
1824 thermocouple Seebech Berlin, Germany 8
1828 electric motor Henry Albany, NY, USA 1
1828 microphone Wheatstone London, England 8
1828 Ohm's law/resistance Ohm Cologne, Germany 8
1830 bimetallic thermostat Ure Glasgow, Scotland 8
1831 discovery of induction Faraday London, England 8
1833 difference engine Babbage Cambridge, England 8
1833 electric telegraph key Gauss/Weber Goettingen, Germany 8
1834 early electric light Lindsay Dundee, Scotland 8
1834 electric telegraph Cooke&WheatsLondon, England 8
1837 Analytical engine Babbage, London, England 8
1837 practical electric motor Davenport, Rutland, VT,USA 1
1840 electroplating Wright, Birmingham, England 8
1840 first "program" Ada Augusta, London, England 8
1844 Washington-Baltimore telegraph Morse Maryland, USA 2
1844 Washington-Baltimore telegraph Morse Maryland, USA 2
1850 Kirchoff's laws Kirchoff, Koenigsberg, Germany 8
1854 electric loom Bonelli Turin, Italy 8
1854 printing telegraph Hughes Kentucky, USA 3
1856 shuttle-wound armature von Siemens Berlin, Germany 8
1859 discovery of cathode rays Pluker Bonn, Germany 8
1859 storage battery, Plante, France 8
1860 arc welding Wilde, London 8
1863 early generator Paccinotti Italy 8
1868 primary dry cell Leclanche France 8
1873 dc generator/lighthouses Gramme Belgium 8
1874 early electric car Salomans Kent, England 8
1875 electric dental drill Green Kalamazoo, MI, USA 4
1877 dynamic microphone Curtis&Reddi,Boston 1
1877 dynamic microphone Siemens Germany 8
1877 resistance welding Thompson, Philadelphia, PA,USA 2
1877 telephone switchboard Holmes, Boston, MA, USA 1
1878 alternator Gramme&Fonta, France 8
1878 alternator Siemens Germany 8
1879 commercial use of arc-lighting Brush Cleveland, OH, USA 2
1880 Contributions of Lewis Latimer, New York 1
1880 early hydroelectric site numerous Grand Rapids, MI, USA 4
1880 first electrically lit town numerous Wabash, Indiana 4
1881 commercial music over wire Cahill Holyoke, Mass., USA 1
1881 solar-powered pump, Adams, Bombay, India 10
1881 transformer Gaulard&Gibb,Paris, France 8
1882 "Elektromote" trackless car, von Siemens, Halensee, Germany 8
1882 commercial electric fan Crocker&Curt, New York, NY, USA 1
1882 early hydroelectric site Brush Minneapolis,MN,USA 4
1882 early hydroelectric site Calder&BarreSurrey, England 8
1882 electric iron Seely, New York, NY, USA 1
1882 electric mine railway von Siemens Saxony, Germany 8
1885 magnetic circuit theory Hopkinson London, England 8
1885 mass production of Edison lampsThomson Lynn, MA 1
1886 bayonet cap light bulb Swan Newcastle-on-Tyne 8
1886 electric heater Burton Richmond,VA,USA 3
1886 electric submarine Peral Spain 8
1886 electrolytic reduction of alumiHall Oberlin, OH. USA 2
1886 electrolytic reduction of alumiHerault Paris, France 8
1886 First electric trolley system, inumerous, Montgomery,AL,USA 3
1886 proof/theory of electromag. wavHertz Karlsruhe, Germany 8
1887 electric elevator von Siemens Mannheim, Germany 8
1888 ac induction motor Tesla New York 1
1888 ac induction motor Ferraris Turin, Italy 8

1888 Edward Weston Precision Meters, USA
1889 automatic telephone exchange Strowger Kansas City,MO,USA 4
1889 Marmelos Zero Hydro Plant numerous Minas Gerais, Brazil 9
1890 electric motor car Morrison Demoines, Iowa 4
1890 high-frequency generator, Thomson, Chicago, USA 4
1890 long-distance ac transmission numerous, Williamette Falls, OR 6
1890 Punched-card machine Holerith Washington,DC,USA 2
1893 Coney Island electric escalatorReno Brooklyn,NY,USA 1
1895 x-rays Roentgen Wuerzburg,Germany 8
1897 crt Braun Strausbourg,Germany 8
1897 electron Thomson Cambridge, England 8
1898 wireless power transmission Tesla New York,NY,USA 1
1899 loading coil Pupin AT&T 1
1899 magnetic recording Poulsen Denmark 8
1901 electric typewriter Cahill Washington,DC,USA 2
1901 mercury discharge lamp, Cooper HewitNew York, NY, USA 1
1902 early broadcast, Stubblefield, Murphy,KY,USA 3
1902 oscilloscope Ryan, Ithaca,NY,USA 1
1906 crystal detector Dunwoody&PicWashington,DC,USA 2
1906 crystal detector Braun Germany 8
1906 sound film Lauste Brixton, England 8
1906 telephone amplifier tube von Lieben Vienna, Austria 8
1906 triode De Forrest US 1

1906 Electromagnetic seismograph, Dorpat, Estonia or St. Petersburg, Russia, 8
1907 Bell Labs founded Jewett, Cart, New York, NY, USA 1
1907 cinema projection system, Bell&Howell, US 4
1907 upright vacuum cleaner Spangler New Berlin, OH, USA 2
1910 Ni-Cd battery Jungner Sweden 8
1910 radio direction finder Bellini&TosiBoulogne, France 8
1910 tungsten filament, Coolidge, US 1
1911 automobile self starter Kettering Dayton,OH,USA 2
1914 electric traffic light Benesch, Cleveland,OH,USA 2
1915 1st transcontinental telephone Bell & Watson, San Francisco 6
1915 2nd transcontinental telephone Bell & Watson, Washington,DC,USA 3
1916 radio telephone, numerous, Arlington, Virginia 2
1916 radio telephone, numerous, San Francisco 6
1917 superheterodyne, Armstrong, Columbia University, New York City, 1
1917 superheterodyne Levy, France 8
1917 VHF Marconi Wales 8
1918 electric refrigerator Wales et al.Detroit, US 4
1918 practical ac clock Warren Ashland,MA,USA 1
1919 neutrodyne Hazeltine, Hoboken, NJ,USA 1
1919 permanent electrostatic fields, Eguchi, Japan 10
1921 magnetron Hall Schenectady,NY,USA 1
1923 PNJ Interconnection numerous Valley Forge,PA,USA 1
1924 stereo phonography Keller Bell Labs 1
1924 stereo phonography Blumlein London 8
1925 cinemascope Chretien France 8
1925 electrodynamic loudspeaker numerous Schenectady,NY,USA 1
1925 quartz crystal watch Numerous New York 1
1926 all-electric gramaphone Brunswick etChicago, USA 4
1926 mechanical TV/1st TV license Baird London, England 8
1926 South Africa lightning research, numerous, Capetown, SA 8
1927 1st commercial talkie (Jazz Sinnumerous Hollywood, USA 6
1927 all-electric juke box Harrison (WeChicago 4
1927 differential analyzer Bush Cambridge,MA,USA 1
1927 negative feedback amp Black Bell Labs 1
1927 pentode Holst/Tellegen Eindhoven, Neth. 8
1927 pop-up toaster Strite Stillwater,MN,USA 4
1927 technicolor Kalmus et alCambridge,MA,USA 1
1928 all-electronic tv Farnsworth USA 6
1928 Geiger tube Geiger&MulleTuebingen, Germany 8
1929 coaxial cable, numerous, New York, NY, USA 1
1929 electro-encephalogram Berger Jena, Germany 8
1929 electron microscope, Knoll&Ruska, Berlin, Germany 8
1929 recording tape Pfleumer Austria 8
1930 FM, Armstrong, Columbia University, New York City 1
1931 commercial electric guitar RickenbackerLA,CA,USA 6
1931 crystal microphone Sawyer Cleveland Hts., OH 2
1931 electric razor Schick Stamford,CT,USA 1
1931 iconoscope Zworykin, Pittsburgh,PA,USA 2
1932 TVA numerous Muscle Shoals, AL 3
1933 Wind turbine connected to grid Balaclava, Ukraine 8
1934 "Tone Wheel" electric organ Hammond&HaneChicago, IL, USA 4
1934 Diesel-electric traction Kettering Cleveland, OH, USA 2
1934 radio beam aerial navigation Plendl Rechlin, Germany 8
1935 early radar Watson-Watt London 8
1935 IBM mass-prod. electric typewrinumerous Endicott,NY,USA 1
1936 AEG "magnetophone" rec. & tape numerous Berlin, Germany 8
1936 Boulder Dam numerous Boulder City, NV,USA 6
1938 klystron Varian brothSilicon Valley 6
1938 Xerography Carlson New York, NY, USA 1
1939 1st electronic-digital computerAtanasoff&BeAmes,IA,USA 4
1941 Honeywell electronic autopilot numerous Minneapolis,MN,USA 4
1941 Grandpa's Knob Wind Turbine, Putnam Grandpa's Knob, VT 1
1943 IBM Mark I numerous Endicott,NY,USA 1
1943 special-pupose electronic compuNewman&FloweBuckinghamshire,Eng 8
1946 Project Diana (ASC Electronics numerous Wall, NJ, USA 1
1948 Atomic clock/C-14 dating Libby Chicago,IL,USA 4
1948 experimental cable TV numerous Oregon, USA 6
1948 information theory Shannon Bell Labs, NJ 1
1948 LP Goldmark  CBS Laboratories, New York, USA 1
1949 electric guitar Fender Anaheim, CA, USA 6
1950 Whirlwind Forrester etIBM 1
1951 junction transistor Shockley et New Jersey, USA 1
1952 Cinerama numerous New York 1
1952 Compiler Hopper Harvard University 1
1952 Magnetic core memory Wang Harvard University 1
1952 SAGE numerous Lincoln Labs, Massachusetts 1 (awaiting IEEE BoD approval)
1952 Univac I Mauchley&EckPhiladelphia,PA,USA 2
1954 Electronic music synthesizer Olsen New York 1
1954 MASER Townes et al, Bell Labs 1
1954 Regency portable transistor radPies & Koch Indianapolis, IN, USA 4
1955 Shockley Lab Shockley Palo Alto, CA, USA 6
1956 Commercial nuclear power generanumerous Shippingport,PA,USA 2
1956 FORTRAN programming language, Backus, New York 1
1956 IBM comm. magnetic memory core numerous San Jose, CA, USA 6

1956 Flight data recorder ("black box")

1956 IBM 305 Random Access Method of Accounting and Control (RAMAC) System, San Jose, CA, USA 6
1958 TI silicon junction transistor Teal (TI) Dallas, TX, USA 5
1958 van Allen Belts Van Allen Ames, IA,USA 4
1959 point-to-point microwave radio numerous Vancouver, Canada 7
1959 Texaco/TR computer-controlled rnumerous Port Arthur, TX, USA 5
1959 tunnel diode, Esaki, Tokyo, Japan 10
1960 COBOL numerous Washington,DC,USA 2
1962 GE LED numerous Syracuse, NY,USA 1
1962 Implantable pacemaker Greatbach Clarence, New York 1
1962 Unimation industrial obot numerous Danbury, MA,USA 1
1963 Langmuir Lab numerous New Mexico 6
1964 BASIC Kurtz Hanover,NH,USA 1
1964 IBM 360 numerous Endicott,NY,USA 1
1964 Laser Holography numerous Ann Arbor,MI,USA 4
1964 voltage-controlled music synth.Moog Trumansburg, NY, USA 1
1965 PDP-8 numerous Boston, MA, USA 1
1966 Fiber optics numerous Corning, NY 1 (awaiting IEEE BoD final approval)
1967 Dolby sound Dolby London, England 1
1968 Computer mouse Engelbart etPalo Alto, CA, USA 6
1970 PASCAL Wirth Zurich,Switzerland 8

1970 Codd's Relational Database paper, San Jose, CA, USA 6
1971 INTEL 4004 Grove et al.Silicon Valley, USA 6
1971 Microprocessor Hoff et al. Silicon Valley, USA 6
1972 Space War: "1st Computer Game"Brand Stanford University, USA 6

1972 Xerox Alto, Palo Alto, CA, USA 6
1973 Ethernet Metcalfe et Palo Alto, CA, USA 6
1974 First PCs (Scelbi-8H, Mark-8, Anumerous Englewood, NJ, USA 1
1977 BIOS Kildall Monterey, CA, USA 6

1977 Apple II, Cupertino, CA, USA 6

1979 Oracle Database, Menlo Park, CA, USA 6

1982 Sun 1, Palo Alto, CA USA 6

1984 Apple Macintosh, Cupertino, CA, USA 6