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== A Brief History of IEEE<br>  ==
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== IEEE Today<br>  ==
  
=== Origins  ===
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<p>IEEE, an association dedicated to the fostering of technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity, is the world’s largest technical professional society. It is designed to serve professionals involved in all aspects of the electrical, electronic and computing fields and related areas of science and technology that underlie modern civilization.</p>
  
IEEE, an association dedicated to the fostering of technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity, is the world’s largest technical professional society. It is designed to serve professionals involved in all aspects of the electrical, electronic and computing fields and related areas of science and technology that underlie modern civilization. IEEE’s roots, however, go back to 1884 when electricity was just beginning to become a major force in society.  
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<p>With almost 400,000 members worldwide, IEEE has a developed a unique dual complementary regional and technical structure - with organizational units based on geography and technical focus. It manages a separate organizational unit ([[IEEE-USA History|IEEE-USA]]) which recommends policies and implements programs specifically intended to benefit the members, the profession and the public in the United States. </p>
  
There was one major electrical industry, the telegraph. Beginning (at least in the United States) with a government sponsored line between Washington and Baltimore in 1844, telegraph lines crossed the country, and with the completion of the first permanent transatlantic cable between Newfoundland and Ireland in 1866, crossed the ocean as well. For the first time in history, communications could routinely travel faster than transportation. By the end of the 1860s, Western Union, the major US telegraph company, was one of the largest businesses in the world, and many young men (and a few young women) sought their fortunes as “telegraphers” or “electricians.”
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<p>IEEE is organized into: </p>
  
Foremost among these was Thomas Edison, who from a start as a boy telegraph operator rose to be the leading inventor of[[Image:01_edison.GIF|Thomas Edison and his incandescent light]] improvements to the telegraph. Then he became a wide ranging independent inventor, who in 1879 demonstrated the first incandescent electrical lighting and power system at his pioneering research center in Menlo Park, New Jersey. He followed that in 1882 with the construction and opening of the world’s first electric power central station in New York City. A second electrical industry began to emerge.  
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*331 local sections in 10 geographic regions.
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*about 1,951 chapters comprised of local members with similar technical interests.  
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*38 societies and 7 technical councils that compose 10 technical divisions.  
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*more than 1,855 student branches at colleges and universities in 80 countries.  
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*533 student branch chapters.
  
=== The American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE)  ===
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<p>The governance of IEEE is likewise complex. The voting membership of IEEE elects a new president each year, who serves for three years - first as President-elect, then as President and CEO, and finally as Past President. IEEE presidents also serve on the three top-tier IEEE governing bodies: </p>
  
Edison was one of a small group of men who responded to Nathaniel S. Keith’s call for a New York meeting to organize a society of electrical professionals to represent the United States to foreign dignitaries who would be attending the International Electrical Exposition the Franklin Institute was hosting in Philadelphia that fall. They met in New York on May 13, 1884 and established the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. The men were a cross section of the electrical experts of the era. The first AIEE president, Norton Green, was the president of Western Union; the six vice presidents included Thomas Edison, telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell, MIT physics professor Charles Cross, two veteran telegraphers, and an employee of equipment manufacturer Western Electric. The AIEE soon established two main classes of membership: members, defined as “Electrical Experts, Electricians, or Electrical Engineers” and associate members described as “ such persons [who] are or have been associated with the utilization of electricity or . . . are qualifying themselves to become identified with electrical science.” That fall, the new AIEE held its first technical meeting in Philadelphia. Six papers were presented, and then published as the first issue of the new society’s journal, the Transactions of the AIEE.
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*[[IEEE Board of Directors|IEEE Board of Directors]]
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*IEEE Executives
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*IEEE Assembly
  
Electric power spread rapidly across the U.S and the world enhanced by innovations such as Nikola Tesla’s AC Induction Motor, long distance AC transmission and large-scale power plants, and commercialized by industries such as Westinghouse and General Electric. The AIEE became increasingly focused on electrical power. Wired communications became a secondary concern. AIEE held regular meetings in New York, beginning in 1893 in Chicago, and soon in other cities with enough members. These local meetings evolved into local sections. There were fourteen by 1904, including one in Toronto, Canada.  
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<p>Six subordinate boards of the main Board of Directors govern major areas of IEEE interest. Each has an elected volunteer leader. </p>
  
Within a decade of its founding, AIEE had become the technical society for an established profession of considerable import, the electrical engineer. AIEE members, mostly power engineers, increasingly had formal academic training. And that education evolved from programs in physics departments to autonomous departments of electrical engineering, such as the one founded by Dugald Jackson at the University of Wisconsin in 1891 . To encourage young engineers, AIEE began offering student memberships, and authorized the formation of campus-based student branches in 1903.
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*[[IEEE Educational Activities Board|Educational Activities]]
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*[[IEEE-USA History|IEEE-USA]]
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*[[IEEE Regional Activities Board|Member and Geographic Activities Board (MGA Board)]]
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*[[IEEE Publications Board|Publication Services and Products Board]]
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*[[IEEE Standards Association History|Standards]]
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*[[IEEE Technical Activities Board (TAB)|Technical Activities]]
  
AIEE interest in standards began within a year of its founding by supporting wire gauge standards developed elsewhere; by the late 1890s, the society had turned to developing its own standards for electrical apparatus, and in 1898 issued the first report of its committee on standardization. Promulgation of standards became an ongoing activity.
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<p>In addition, the IEEE Board of Directors over the years as established standing committees to aid it in its governance. There are currently 16 standing committees of the IEEE Board of Directors: </p>
  
As the twentieth century began, an increasing percentage of members were engaged in commercial engineering, frequently as employees of or consultants to large power utilities. To address the sometimes competing requirements of their employer’s demands and their status as professionals, the AIEE drafted its first code of ethics (or as they called it a, “Code of Principles of Professional Conduct”) in 1912. Also, in 1912 AIEE added a higher membership grade of fellow to be awarded only to the most distinguished members
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*[[IEEE Audit Committee|IEEE Audit Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Awards|IEEE Awards Board]]
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*[[IEEE Employee Benefits and Compensation Committee History|IEEE Employee Benefits &amp; Compensation Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Ethics and Member Conduct Committee History|IEEE Ethics and Member Conduct Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Fellow Grade History|IEEE Fellow Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Finance Committee History|IEEE Finance Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Governance Committee History|IEEE Governance Committee]]
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*[[IEEE History Committee History|IEEE History Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Insurance Committee History|IEEE Insurance Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Investment Committee History|IEEE Investment Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Marketing and Sales Committee History|IEEE Marketing and Sales Committee]]
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*[[IEEE New Initiatives Committee History|IEEE New Initiatives Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Nominations and Appointments Committee History|IEEE Nominations and Appointments Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Strategic Planning Committee History|IEEE Strategic Planning Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Tellers Committee History|IEEE Tellers Committee]]
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*[[IEEE Women in Engineering|IEEE Women in Engineering Committee]]
  
=== The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE)  ===
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<p>Also, Presidents of the Societies and Technical Councils serve as part of the governance of the Technical Activities Board.</p>
  
At the turn of the century, a new electrical technology, radio, or wireless as it was originally known, emerged out of principles coming from physics, most notably the electromagnetic spectrum. Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi’s 1901 wireless broadcast of Morse code across the Atlantic began a global period of feverish activity, especially among young men with an technological bent. It was the “hot” technology of the day. By 1912, it was a young profession, with radio telegraph stations connecting ships at sea. A small group of men representing local societies in New York and Boston met in New York in May 1912, and led by Robert Marriott, Alfred Goldsmith, and John V.L Hogan, formed the Institute of Radio Engineers. Marriott became the first IRE president. To a large extent, they modeled their Institute on the AIEE, with membership grades, a journal, local sections, standards activities, and technical meetings, but there were other influences as well. They established their journal, the Proceedings of the IRE along the lines of scientific journals, with papers directly submitted and peer review, which allowed for faster publication than the AIEE’s policy that papers be presented at meetings first. They deliberately did not include “American” in their name, to signify the transnational nature of radio.  
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<p>[[Media:Soc_and_Council_pres.pdf|A full list of past and present Society and Council Presidents is available here.]] </p>
  
Radio itself was transformed by the development of the vacuum tube amplifier, the first electronic device, from its origins in the Audion three-element vacuum or electron tube, patented in 1906 by inventor and 1930 IRE President Lee de Forest. Morse code yielded to sound and radio broadcasting swept the world. Between 1920 and 1930 the number of U.S. homes with radio climbed from 0 to 14 million. Discrete electrical technologies evolved towards large interconnected systems including radio networks, widespread electrical power grids and globally interconnected telephone systems. Both societies continued to serve their members, and took tentative note of electronics, while focusing most of their attention on their traditional areas. But much as power was a larger industry than radio, so the AIEE was a larger society than IRE.  
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<p>Finally, IEEE has approximately 900 employees who support various IEEE activities. The [[AIEE, IRE, and IEEE General Managers and Executive Directors|Executive Director]] is the full-time chief operating officer.</p>
  
<br>
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== A Brief History of IEEE  ==
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=== Origins  ===
  
=== The Two Societies Converge  ===
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<p>Although it isn association of cutting-edge members, IEEE’s roots go back to 1884 when electricity was just beginning to become a major force in society. There was one major established electrical industry, the [[Telegraph|telegraph]], which—beginning in the 1840s—had come to connect the world with a communications system faster than the speed of transportation. A second major area had only barely gotten underway—electric power and light, originating in [[Thomas Alva Edison|Thomas Edison]]’s inventions and his pioneering [[Pearl Street Station|Pearl Street Station]] in New York. </p>
  
The 1940s electronics rose to a new prominence as governments throughout the world organized their scientists and engineers to devise technologies for use in World War II. One set of efforts produced pioneering electronic digital computers such as Colossus in England and ENIAC the United States that used thousands of vacuum tubes. An even larger effort, centered on the euphemistically named Radiation Lab established at MIT, developed radar as an important war tool. To the chagrin of IRE and AIEE, physicists played a far more prominent role in these advances than engineers. With the invention of the transistor, the first solid state electronic amplifier and switch in 1947, the possibilities for electronics seemed endless.
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=== [[AIEE History 1884-1963|Foundation of the AIEE]]  ===
  
The IRE in particular grew rapidly alongside these changes, expanding from 6,000 members in 1940 to 17,000 members in 1945 and 21,000 members in 1950. AIEE membership grew more slowly from its larger base. In 1948, IRE adopted a decentralized “professional group” structure that allowed it to incorporate the new fields, such as electronic computers and information theory, hold specialized conferences, and publish specialized journals. The AIEE’s centralized technical committee system proved less nimble. In 1956, the IRE passed the older society in the number of student members as students increasingly turned to electronics. In the following year IRE became the larger society in total number of members as well with both societies over 50,000. While the IRE had always accepted members from other countries, most of whom joined to receive its highly regarded journals, that number grew as well, and IRE members formed sections in countries including Japan, Italy, Israel, and Colombia.<br>  
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<p>[[Image:AIEE Badge 0874.jpg|thumb|right]]In the spring of 1884, a small group of individuals in the electrical professions met in New York. They formed a new organization to support professionals in their nascent field and to aid them in their efforts—the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, or AIEE for short. That October the AIEE held its first technical meeting in Philadelphia. Many early leaders, such as founding President Norvin Green of [[Western Union|Western Union]], came from telegraphy. Others, such as Thomas Edison, came from power, while [[Alexander Graham Bell|Alexander Graham Bell]] represented the newer telephone industry. As electric power spread rapidly across the land—enhanced by innovations such as [[Nikola Tesla|Nikola Tesla’s]] AC Induction Motor, long distance AC transmission and large-scale power plants, and commercialized by industries such as Westinghouse and [[General Electric (GE)|General Electric]]—the AIEE became increasingly focused on electrical power and its ability to change people’s lives through the unprecedented products and services it could deliver. There was a secondary focus on wired communication, both the telegraph and the telephone. Through technical meetings, publications, and promotion of standards, the AIEE led the growth of the electrical engineering profession, while through local sections and student branches, it brought its benefits to engineers in widespread places.It also gave recognition for outstanding achievement in electrical techonologies through [[IEEE Awards|annual awards]], begining with the [[IEEE Edison Medal|Edison Medal]], first presented to [[Elihu Thomson|Elihu Thomson]] in 1909. </p>
  
=== AIEE and IRE merge to form IEEE ===
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=== [[IRE History 1912-1963|Foundation of the IRE]] ===
  
<br>Through the 1950s, the two societies grew closer, holding joint meetings, developing a joint membership policy, merging student chapters, cooperating on standards, and exploring the possibility of combining to form a single United States-based organization for all electrical and electronic engineers. In 1962, a joint committee of the societies agreed on a set of “Principles of Consolidation,” which first the boards and then the membership of both societies approved. On January 1, 1963, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers was born with 150,000 members, 140,000 of whom were in the United States. Now a single society spanned the technologies, the industries, and the academic allegiances of what had become a complex, multifaceted discipline.  
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<p>[[Image:Brokaw mansion mosaic 0970(10).jpg|thumb|left|IRE Mosaic in the Society's Brokaw Mansion]]A new industry arose beginning with [[Guglielmo Marconi|Guglielmo Marconi]]’s [[Wireless Telegraphy|wireless telegraphy]] experiments at the turn of the century. What was originally called “wireless” became [[Radio|radio]] with the electrical amplification possibilities inherent in the vacuum tubes which evolved from [[John Fleming|John Fleming’s]] [[Diode|diode]] and [[Lee De Forest|Lee de Forest]]’s triode. With the new industry came a new society in 1912, the Institute of Radio Engineers. The [[Image:IRE Proceedings on Merger 1637.jpg|thumb|right]]IRE was modeled on the AIEE, but was devoted to radio, and then increasingly to electronics. It, too, furthered its profession by linking its members through publications, standards and conferences, and encouraging them to advance their industries by promoting innovation and excellence in the emerging new products and services. </p>
  
Legally, the AIEE was the surviving institution, albeit with a new name. But as a practical matter, the policies and practices of the larger IRE for the most part prevailed. The IEEE adopted the decentralized professional group structure of the IRE. Gradually, these groups incorporated the corresponding AIEE technical committees, and, beginning in 1970, as they did so were renamed as IEEE Societies. The largest IRE professional group became the IEEE Computer Society in 1970. The biggest part of AIEE became the IEEE Power Engineering Society. The IRE Transactions published by the various Professional Groups simply substituted IEEE in their titles. The Proceedings of the IEEE continued the numbering and editorial policies of the IRE Proceedings. Only the AIEE had had a general interest membership magazine, Electrical Engineering. This was replaced by a new magazine, IEEE Spectrum. The IRE Student Quarterly and the AIEE Student Digest yielded to the IEEE Student Journal, though this was merged into IEEE Spectrum in 1970.
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=== [[Formation of IEEE by the Merger of AIEE and IRE|The Societies Converge and Merge]]  ===
  
<br>  
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<p>[[Image:Merger Symposium 0975.jpg|thumb|left|Merger Symposium at 1962 IRE Convention]]Through the help of leadership from the two societies, and with the applications of its members’ innovations to industry, electricity wove its way—decade by decade—more deeply into every corner of life—television, [[Radar|radar]], transistors, computers. Increasingly, the interests of the societies overlapped. Membership in both societies grew, but beginning in the 1940s, the IRE grew faster and in 1957 became the larger group. On 1 January 1 1963, The AIEE and the IRE [[Formation of IEEE by the Merger of AIEE and IRE|merged to]] form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, or IEEE. At its formation, the IEEE had 150,000 members, 140,000 of whom were in the United States. </p>
  
=== The Growth of IEEE 1963-1984  ===
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=== [[IEEE 1963-1984|IEEE 1963-1984]] ===
  
As the 1960s ended, so did the post-war boom in electronics. For the first time since the 1930s, significant numbers of Institute members faced un- and under-employment. In the tenor of the times, many people, including some IEEE members, began publicly questioning whether technology was always a force for the good. These issues led to a movement among IEEE’s U. S. members for the Institute to expand its scope beyond the technical and educational activities specified in its constitution to professional ones. The growing number of members outside the U. S. failed to see the need, in part because they typically also had national societies to deal with these issues. After considerable debate, some of it conducted in the pages of IEEE Spectrum, the IEEE first established a U. S. Activities Board in 1971 to address the professional needs of its U.S. members. In 1972, IEEE membership overwhelmingly approved amending the constitution to extend IEEE’s charter to “advancement of the standing of the members of the professions it serves.” The USAB, funded by U. S. members only, established its headquarters in Washington to be well positioned to work with the United States government to address these professional issues. In more recent years, it has become IEEE-USA.  
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<p>Over the decades that followed, with IEEE’s continued leadership, the societal roles of the technologies under its aegis continued to spread across the world, and reach into more and more areas of people’s lives. The professional groups and technical boards of the predecessor institutions evolved into IEEE Societies. By the time IEEE celebrated its centennial (from the year AIEE was formed) in 1984, it had 250,000 members, 50,000 of whom were outside the United States. </p>
  
Even through the social turmoil of the 1970s, IEEE’s fields continued to grow and expand into every corner of civilization. Transistors led to integrated circuits which in turn became increasingly complex and specialized. The mainframe computers that were standard business tools in the 1960s began to give way to ever smaller and more powerful personal computers. Copper and microwave communications circuits yielded to fiber optics. Medical applications of electrotechnologies expanded with innovations such as laser surgery and CAT scans. And IEEE kept pace; its societies published more journals with more papers and held more specialized conferences. Increasingly, it was becoming a transnational organization, rather than a U.S. organization with international members. IEEE restarted a student publication, IEEE Potentials, in 1982 to meet the needs of its younger members. By the time IEEE celebrated its centennial in 1984, membership had grown to 250,000, of whom 50,000 were outside the United States.
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=== [[IEEE 1984 to the Present|IEEE from 1984]]  ===
  
=== <br>Recent History 1984-2009  ===
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<p>Since that time, computers evolved from massive mainframes to desktop appliances to portable devices, all part of a global network connected by [[Communications Satellites|satellites]] and then by [[Fiber Optics|fiber optics]]. IEEE’s fields of interest expanded well beyond electrical/electronic engineering and computing into areas such as [[Early Microelectronics|micro]]- and [[Building Blocks of Nanotechology|nanotechnology]], ultrasonics, bioengineering, robotics, electronic materials, and many others. Electronics became ubiquitous—from jet cockpits to industrial robots to medical imaging. As technologies and the industries that developed them increasingly transcended national boundaries, IEEE kept pace, becoming a truly global institution which used the innovations of the practitioners it represented in order to enhance its own excellence in delivering products and services to members, industries, and the public at large. </p>
  
In the last twenty-five years, the transformation of IEEE into a global organization has continued, as the countries of the world, fueled by advances in IEEE’s technologies have become more closely linked together. Computing and communications have converged. Multiple fiber optic cables sending packet switched information dropped global transmission costs to close to zero. Most of what is transmitted is data, rather than voice. Information and commerce traverse the globe via the Internet. IEEE embraced its own technologies, and moved many operations to the Internet, most notably two million papers, presentations, and other documents, which are now globally accessible through the online portal, IEEE Xplore. IEEE expanded its reach, opening offices in Beijing and Singapore. By 2009, 44.5% of IEEE’s 375,000 members resided in 159 countries besides the United States. The Institute, and its technologies, have certainly more than fulfilled the fondest hopes of the founding group that met in New York so many years before.  
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<p>By the early 21st Century, IEEE served its members and their interests with 38 societies; 130 journals, transactions and magazines; more 300 conferences annually; and 900 active standards. </p>
  
<br>  
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<p>Publications and educational programs were delivered online, as were member services such as renewal and elections. By 2009, IEEE had 380,000 members in 160 countries, with 44.5 percent outside of the country where it was founded a century and a quarter before. Through its worldwide network of geographical units, publications, web services, and conferences, IEEE remains the world's leading professional association for the advancement of technology. </p>
  
[[Category:IEEE]] [[Category:History_&_heritage|Category:History_&amp;_heritage]]
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[[Category:IEEE]]
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[[Category:History_&_heritage]]

Revision as of 17:13, 25 January 2012

Contents

IEEE Today

IEEE, an association dedicated to the fostering of technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity, is the world’s largest technical professional society. It is designed to serve professionals involved in all aspects of the electrical, electronic and computing fields and related areas of science and technology that underlie modern civilization.

With almost 400,000 members worldwide, IEEE has a developed a unique dual complementary regional and technical structure - with organizational units based on geography and technical focus. It manages a separate organizational unit (IEEE-USA) which recommends policies and implements programs specifically intended to benefit the members, the profession and the public in the United States.

IEEE is organized into:

  • 331 local sections in 10 geographic regions.
  • about 1,951 chapters comprised of local members with similar technical interests.
  • 38 societies and 7 technical councils that compose 10 technical divisions.
  • more than 1,855 student branches at colleges and universities in 80 countries.
  • 533 student branch chapters.

The governance of IEEE is likewise complex. The voting membership of IEEE elects a new president each year, who serves for three years - first as President-elect, then as President and CEO, and finally as Past President. IEEE presidents also serve on the three top-tier IEEE governing bodies:

Six subordinate boards of the main Board of Directors govern major areas of IEEE interest. Each has an elected volunteer leader.

In addition, the IEEE Board of Directors over the years as established standing committees to aid it in its governance. There are currently 16 standing committees of the IEEE Board of Directors:

Also, Presidents of the Societies and Technical Councils serve as part of the governance of the Technical Activities Board.

A full list of past and present Society and Council Presidents is available here.

Finally, IEEE has approximately 900 employees who support various IEEE activities. The Executive Director is the full-time chief operating officer.

A Brief History of IEEE

Origins

Although it isn association of cutting-edge members, IEEE’s roots go back to 1884 when electricity was just beginning to become a major force in society. There was one major established electrical industry, the telegraph, which—beginning in the 1840s—had come to connect the world with a communications system faster than the speed of transportation. A second major area had only barely gotten underway—electric power and light, originating in Thomas Edison’s inventions and his pioneering Pearl Street Station in New York.

Foundation of the AIEE

In the spring of 1884, a small group of individuals in the electrical professions met in New York. They formed a new organization to support professionals in their nascent field and to aid them in their efforts—the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, or AIEE for short. That October the AIEE held its first technical meeting in Philadelphia. Many early leaders, such as founding President Norvin Green of Western Union, came from telegraphy. Others, such as Thomas Edison, came from power, while Alexander Graham Bell represented the newer telephone industry. As electric power spread rapidly across the land—enhanced by innovations such as Nikola Tesla’s AC Induction Motor, long distance AC transmission and large-scale power plants, and commercialized by industries such as Westinghouse and General Electric—the AIEE became increasingly focused on electrical power and its ability to change people’s lives through the unprecedented products and services it could deliver. There was a secondary focus on wired communication, both the telegraph and the telephone. Through technical meetings, publications, and promotion of standards, the AIEE led the growth of the electrical engineering profession, while through local sections and student branches, it brought its benefits to engineers in widespread places.It also gave recognition for outstanding achievement in electrical techonologies through annual awards, begining with the Edison Medal, first presented to Elihu Thomson in 1909.

Foundation of the IRE

IRE Mosaic in the Society's Brokaw Mansion
IRE Mosaic in the Society's Brokaw Mansion
A new industry arose beginning with Guglielmo Marconi’s wireless telegraphy experiments at the turn of the century. What was originally called “wireless” became radio with the electrical amplification possibilities inherent in the vacuum tubes which evolved from John Fleming’s diode and Lee de Forest’s triode. With the new industry came a new society in 1912, the Institute of Radio Engineers. The
IRE was modeled on the AIEE, but was devoted to radio, and then increasingly to electronics. It, too, furthered its profession by linking its members through publications, standards and conferences, and encouraging them to advance their industries by promoting innovation and excellence in the emerging new products and services.

The Societies Converge and Merge

Merger Symposium at 1962 IRE Convention
Merger Symposium at 1962 IRE Convention
Through the help of leadership from the two societies, and with the applications of its members’ innovations to industry, electricity wove its way—decade by decade—more deeply into every corner of life—television, radar, transistors, computers. Increasingly, the interests of the societies overlapped. Membership in both societies grew, but beginning in the 1940s, the IRE grew faster and in 1957 became the larger group. On 1 January 1 1963, The AIEE and the IRE merged to form the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, or IEEE. At its formation, the IEEE had 150,000 members, 140,000 of whom were in the United States.

IEEE 1963-1984

Over the decades that followed, with IEEE’s continued leadership, the societal roles of the technologies under its aegis continued to spread across the world, and reach into more and more areas of people’s lives. The professional groups and technical boards of the predecessor institutions evolved into IEEE Societies. By the time IEEE celebrated its centennial (from the year AIEE was formed) in 1984, it had 250,000 members, 50,000 of whom were outside the United States.

IEEE from 1984

Since that time, computers evolved from massive mainframes to desktop appliances to portable devices, all part of a global network connected by satellites and then by fiber optics. IEEE’s fields of interest expanded well beyond electrical/electronic engineering and computing into areas such as micro- and nanotechnology, ultrasonics, bioengineering, robotics, electronic materials, and many others. Electronics became ubiquitous—from jet cockpits to industrial robots to medical imaging. As technologies and the industries that developed them increasingly transcended national boundaries, IEEE kept pace, becoming a truly global institution which used the innovations of the practitioners it represented in order to enhance its own excellence in delivering products and services to members, industries, and the public at large.

By the early 21st Century, IEEE served its members and their interests with 38 societies; 130 journals, transactions and magazines; more 300 conferences annually; and 900 active standards.

Publications and educational programs were delivered online, as were member services such as renewal and elections. By 2009, IEEE had 380,000 members in 160 countries, with 44.5 percent outside of the country where it was founded a century and a quarter before. Through its worldwide network of geographical units, publications, web services, and conferences, IEEE remains the world's leading professional association for the advancement of technology.