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Early Electrification of Buffalo: Types of Electric Service available in Buffalo

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This is Part 11 of a 14 part series.  
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<p>This is Part 11 of a 14 part series. </p>
  
An October 1921 Buffalo General Electric magazine called ‘The Welder’ showed the availability of electric service with 25-Hz service for power generally available in all parts of the City and other types of service as follows:<sup>i</sup>  
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<p>Previous: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency|Page 10 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency]]</p>
  
[[Image:11-154 25 Hz service cropped.GIF|thumb|left|120x160px|Figure 11.1  Availability of 25 Hz Service for Lighting (principally for residential)]][[Image:11-155 60.5 Hz service cropped.GIF|thumb|right|120x160px|Figure 11.2  62 1/2 -Hz service available for lighting and small power (less than 50-hp) in the southeast section of the City.]][[Image:11-156 DC Edison Service. cropped.GIF|thumb|left|120x160px|Figure 11.3  Availability of Direct Current (Edison System (110/220-V) Downtown Business District)]]1. 25-Hz service for lighting largely confined to the northern half of the City [Fig. 11.1].  
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<p>An October 1921 Buffalo General Electric magazine called ‘The Welder’ states that 25-Hz service for power was generally available in all parts of the City.&nbsp;&nbsp;Other types of service were confined to certain sections of the City as shown in Figures 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 &amp; 11.4:<sup>i</sup> </p>
  
2. 62 ½-Hz service for lighting and small power available in the southeast section of the City (less than 50-hp) [Fig.11.2].
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<p>[[Image:11-154 25 Hz service cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.1  Availability of 25 Hz Service for Lighting (principally for residential) confined primarily to the northwest section of the City]] </p>
  
3. Edison System direct current at 110/220 volts available in the downtown business district [Fig.11.3].
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<p>[[Image:11-156 DC Edison Service. cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 11.3  Availability of Direct Current (Edison System (110/220-V) confined to the Downtown Business District)]] </p>
  
[[Image:11-157 DC 500 V cropped.GIF|thumb|right|120x160px|Figure 11.4   Availability of Direct Current 500-V (principally for elevators)]]4. Direct current at 500 volts available for power principally for elevators [Fig. 11.4].
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<p>[[Image:11-155 60.5 Hz service cropped.GIF|thumb|center|Figure 11.2   Availability of 62 1/2 -Hz Service  for Lighting and Small Power (less than 50-hp) confined to the southeast section of the City.]] </p>
  
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<p>[[Image:11-157 DC 500 V cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.4  Availability of Direct Current 500-V (principally for elevators)]] </p>
  
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This 1921 magazine also noted “only 61% of the employees of the B. G. E. Company live in wired homes.”<sup>ii</sup>  
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<p><br> </p>
  
&nbsp;[[Image:11-158 Gas Streetlight cropped.GIF|thumb|center|120x140px|Figure 11.5  Gas Streetlight]]In 1923 Buffalo General Electric started a project in Buffalo of installing electric streetlights to replace 10,000 gaslights like the one shown&nbsp;in Figure 11.5&nbsp;with a two-piece cast iron standard.<sup>iii</sup>&nbsp; [[Image:11-159 Electric Streelight cropped.GIF|thumb|center|120x140px|Figure 11.6  Electric Streelight (with a cast iron base and a fluted sheet steel column)]]While many of the cast iron gas standards were converted to electric streetlights, most were replaced with&nbsp;the&nbsp;type standard shown in Figure 11.6.
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<p>This 1921 magazine also noted “only 61% of the employees of the B. G. E. Company live in wired homes.<sup>ii</sup> </p>
  
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<p><br> [[Image:11-158 Gas Streetlight cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 11.5  Gas Streetlight]] </p>
  
<br>
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<p>In 1923 Buffalo General Electric started a project in Buffalo of installing electric streetlights to replace 10,000 gaslights like the one shown&nbsp;in Figure 11.5&nbsp;with a two-piece cast iron standard.<sup>iii</sup>&nbsp;While many of the cast iron gas standards were converted to electric streetlights, most were replaced with the type standard shown in Figure 11.6. </p>
  
[[Image:11-160 map of source stations cropped.GIF|thumb|left|150x200px|Figure 11.7   Map of Source Stations (from top to bottom:  Huntley Station and Terminal Station C, Terminal House A, Terminal House B)]]Note that all the power supplied to the City of Buffalo was from facilities located in the northwest sector of the City [Fig. 11.7]. This required a very extensive 11,000-V and 22,000-V cable system to distribute power to the distribution stations and customers scattered around the City. [[Image:11-161 Terminal Station D.GIF|thumb|right|100x75px|Figure 11.8  Terminal Station D]]To supplement these sources, 60,000-V to 22,000-V Terminal Station D was built on Bailey Avenue south of William and placed in service July 1926 [Fig. 11.8]. A double-circuit 60,000-V overhead transmission line from Terminal Station C supplied Terminal Station D. 22,000-V cables were installed to pickup [[Image:11-162 Station 16.GIF|thumb|right|100x75px|Figure 11.9  Station 16 on Main north of Hertel]]substations and customers in the southeast section of the City.<sup>iv</sup>&nbsp;
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<p>[[Image:11-159 Electric Streelight cropped.GIF|thumb|center|Figure 11.6   Electric Streelight (with a cast iron base and a fluted sheet steel column)]] </p>
  
The following substations were built for 22,000 V:&nbsp;
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<p><br> </p>
  
No. 16 on Main north of Hertel [Figure 11.9]&nbsp;
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<p>[[Image:11-160 map of source stations cropped.GIF|thumb|left|150x200px|Figure 11.7  Map of Source Stations (from top to bottom:  Huntley Station and Terminal Station C, Terminal House A, Terminal House B)]] </p>
  
[[Image:11-163 station 17.GIF|thumb|right|100x75px|Figutr 11.10   Station 17 on Ohio & Childs]]  
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<p>[[Image:11-161 Terminal Station D.GIF|thumb|right|100x75px|Figure 11.8   Terminal Station D]] </p>
  
[[Image:11-164 Station 18.GIF|thumb|left|100x75px|Figure 11.11   Station 18 on Sumner & West Shore]]No. 17 on Ohio &amp; Childs&nbsp;[Fig. 11.10]&nbsp;  
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<p>Note that all the power supplied to the City of Buffalo was from facilities located in the northwest sector of the City [Fig. 11.7]. This required a very extensive 11,000-V and 22,000-V cable system to distribute power to the distribution stations and customers scattered around the City. To supplement these sources, 60,000-V to 22,000-V Terminal Station D was built on Bailey Avenue south of William and placed in service July 1926 [Fig. 11.8]. A double-circuit 60,000-V overhead transmission line from Terminal Station C supplied Terminal Station D. 22,000-V cables were installed to pickup substations and customers in the southeast section of the City.<sup>iv</sup>&nbsp; </p>
  
No. 18 on Sumner &amp; West Shore [Fig. 11.11]&nbsp;
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No. 19 on Lee &amp; Prenatt [Figure 11.12]
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[[Image:11-166 Station 20.GIF|thumb|right|100x75px|figure 11.13  Station 20 on Kenmore north of Vulcan]]No. 20 on Kenmore north of Vulcan [Fig.11.13].
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<p><br> <br> </p>
  
Synchronous condensers for power factor correction were installed in several station[[Image:11-165 Station 19.GIF|thumb|left|100x75px|Figure 11.12  Station 19 on Lee & Prenatt (no photo available)]]s. A synchronous condenser is a synchronous motor running at no load with the field adjusted so the armature takes a leading current.&nbsp;
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<p><br><br> </p>
  
Not all businesses were sold on central station electric service.
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<p><br> </p>
  
&nbsp;[[Image:12-167 Ellicott Sq. Bldg.GIF|thumb|center|Figure 11.14  Ellicott Square Building]]For example The author was told the Ellicott Square building [Fig11.14] generated electricity in the winter when they operated steam boilers for heating, and purchased electricity from Buffalo General Electric in the summer.<sup>v</sup>  
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<p>Distribution substations No. 16 through No. 20 were built for 22,000 V. </p>
  
[[Image:12-168 Larkin Co cropped.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.16]   Larkin Co.]]The Larkin Company [Fig. 11.16]did not stop generating electricity until 1930.<sup>vi</sup>  
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<p>[[Image:11-162 Station 16.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.9  Station 16 on Main north of Hertel]] </p>
  
[[Image:12-169 Hotel Statler.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 11.17   Hotel Statler]]Hotel Statler [Fig. 11.17], which was built in 1923, used reciprocating steam engine driven ammonia compressors for air conditioning and making ice until about 1970. This required the hotel to operate steam boilers year round.<sup>vii</sup>  
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<p><br> [[Image:11-164 Station 18.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 11.11   Station 18 on Sumner & West Shore]] </p>
  
[[Image:12-170 Col. Ward Pumping Sta.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.18   Col. Ward Pumping Station]]The City of Buffalo’s Col. Ward Pumping Station [Fig. 11.18]&nbsp;at the foot of Porter Avenue kept these huge steam pumps in reserve until about 1970. Electric pumps are in the foreground.<sup>viii</sup>  
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<p>[[Image:11-163 station 17.GIF|thumb|center|Figure 11.10   Station 17 on Ohio & Childs]] </p>
  
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<p>[[Image:11-165 Station 19.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.12  Station 19 on Lee & Prenatt (no photo available)]] </p>
  
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<p>[[Image:11-166 Station 20.GIF|thumb|right|figure 11.13  Station 20 on Kenmore north of Vulcan]] </p>
  
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<p>Synchronous condensers for power factor correction were installed in several stations. A synchronous condenser is a synchronous motor running at no load with the field adjusted so the armature takes a leading current.&nbsp; </p>
  
Next: 60-Hz replaces 25-Hz
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<p>Not all businesses were sold on central station electric service. </p>
  
== References<br> ==
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<p>For example the author was told the Ellicott Square building [Fig11.14] generated electricity in the winter when they operated steam boilers for heating, and purchased electricity from Buffalo General Electric in the summer.<sup>v </sup><br> </p>
  
i. H. B. Alverson, “Our Systems of Distribution,” ''The Welder'', Published by the Employees of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 1 No. 8 (1921):12.  
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<p>[[Image:12-167 Ellicott Sq. Bldg.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.14  Ellicott Square Building]] </p>
  
ii. “Is Your Home Wired?” ''The Welder'', Published by the Employees of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 1, No 8, (1921):27.  
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<p>[[Image:12-168 Larkin Co cropped.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 11.15]  Larkin Co.]]The Larkin Company [Fig. 11.15]did not stop generating electricity until 1930.<sup>vi</sup> </p>
  
iii. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 2:292.  
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<p>[[Image:12-169 Hotel Statler.GIF|thumb|left|Figure 11.16  Hotel Statler]] </p>
  
iv. “Happenings” (An Annual Log from the Electric Operations Department, Buffalo General Electric Company, 1926, photocopy).  
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<p>Hotel Statler [Fig. 11.16], which was built in 1923, used reciprocating steam engine driven ammonia compressors for air conditioning and making ice until about 1970. This required the hotel to operate steam boilers year round.<sup>vii</sup> </p>
  
v. Related to the author by George Adams, NMP T&amp;D engineer, ca. 1961.  
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<p>[[Image:12-170 Col. Ward Pumping Sta.GIF|thumb|right|Figure 11.17  Col. Ward Pumping Station]] </p>
  
vi. “Larkin Company Now Uses Niagara Power,” ''Power Events'', Published by Buffalo, Niagara &amp; Eastern Power Corporation, 5, No 2 (1930): 8.  
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<p>The City of Buffalo’s Col. Ward Pumping Station [Fig. 11.17]&nbsp;at the foot of Porter Avenue kept these huge steam pumps in reserve until about 1970. Electric pumps are in the foreground.<sup>viii</sup> </p>
  
vii. Author’s recollection from personal observation during work as NMP Underground Engineer.
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<p><br> </p>
  
viii. Author’s recollection from personal observation during work as NMP Underground Engineer.<br><br>
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<p><br> </p>
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<p>Next: [[Early Electrification of Buffalo: 60-Hz Replaces 25-Hz|Part 12 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: 60-Hz replaces 25-Hz]] </p>
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== References<br>  ==
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<p>i. H. B. Alverson, “Our Systems of Distribution,” ''The Welder'', Published by the Employees of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 1 No. 8 (1921):12. </p>
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<p>ii. “Is Your Home Wired?” ''The Welder'', Published by the Employees of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 1, No 8, (1921):27. </p>
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<p>iii. Adams, ''Niagara Power'', 2:292. </p>
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<p>iv. “Happenings” (An Annual Log from the Electric Operations Department, Buffalo General Electric Company, 1926, photocopy). </p>
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<p>v. Related to the author by George Adams, NMP T&amp;D engineer, ca. 1961. </p>
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<p>vi. “Larkin Company Now Uses Niagara Power,” ''Power Events'', Published by Buffalo, Niagara &amp; Eastern Power Corporation, 5, No 2 (1930): 8. </p>
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<p>vii. Author’s recollection from personal observation during work as NMP Underground Engineer. </p>
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<p>viii. Author’s recollection from personal observation during work as NMP Underground Engineer.<br><br> </p>
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<p></p>
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<p>[[Category:Power,_energy_&_industry_applications|Category:Power,_energy_&amp;_industry_application]] [[Category:Power_generation]] [[Category:Power_distribution]]</p>

Revision as of 14:10, 13 November 2013

This is Part 11 of a 14 part series.

Previous: Page 10 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: Hydroelectric Reorganization to Increase Efficiency

An October 1921 Buffalo General Electric magazine called ‘The Welder’ states that 25-Hz service for power was generally available in all parts of the City.  Other types of service were confined to certain sections of the City as shown in Figures 11.1, 11.2, 11.3 & 11.4:i

Figure 11.1   Availability of 25 Hz Service for Lighting (principally for residential) confined primarily to the northwest section of the City
Figure 11.1 Availability of 25 Hz Service for Lighting (principally for residential) confined primarily to the northwest section of the City

Figure 11.3   Availability of Direct Current (Edison System (110/220-V) confined to the Downtown Business District)
Figure 11.3 Availability of Direct Current (Edison System (110/220-V) confined to the Downtown Business District)

Figure 11.2   Availability of 62 1/2 -Hz Service  for Lighting and Small Power (less than 50-hp) confined to the southeast section of the City.
Figure 11.2 Availability of 62 1/2 -Hz Service for Lighting and Small Power (less than 50-hp) confined to the southeast section of the City.

Figure 11.4   Availability of Direct Current 500-V (principally for elevators)
Figure 11.4 Availability of Direct Current 500-V (principally for elevators)



This 1921 magazine also noted “only 61% of the employees of the B. G. E. Company live in wired homes.”ii


Figure 11.5   Gas Streetlight
Figure 11.5 Gas Streetlight

In 1923 Buffalo General Electric started a project in Buffalo of installing electric streetlights to replace 10,000 gaslights like the one shown in Figure 11.5 with a two-piece cast iron standard.iii While many of the cast iron gas standards were converted to electric streetlights, most were replaced with the type standard shown in Figure 11.6.

Figure 11.6   Electric Streelight (with a cast iron base and a fluted sheet steel column)
Figure 11.6 Electric Streelight (with a cast iron base and a fluted sheet steel column)


Figure 11.7   Map of Source Stations (from top to bottom:  Huntley Station and Terminal Station C, Terminal House A, Terminal House B)
Figure 11.7 Map of Source Stations (from top to bottom: Huntley Station and Terminal Station C, Terminal House A, Terminal House B)

Figure 11.8   Terminal Station D
Figure 11.8 Terminal Station D

Note that all the power supplied to the City of Buffalo was from facilities located in the northwest sector of the City [Fig. 11.7]. This required a very extensive 11,000-V and 22,000-V cable system to distribute power to the distribution stations and customers scattered around the City. To supplement these sources, 60,000-V to 22,000-V Terminal Station D was built on Bailey Avenue south of William and placed in service July 1926 [Fig. 11.8]. A double-circuit 60,000-V overhead transmission line from Terminal Station C supplied Terminal Station D. 22,000-V cables were installed to pickup substations and customers in the southeast section of the City.iv 










Distribution substations No. 16 through No. 20 were built for 22,000 V.

Figure 11.9   Station 16 on Main north of Hertel
Figure 11.9 Station 16 on Main north of Hertel


Figure 11.11   Station 18 on Sumner & West Shore
Figure 11.11 Station 18 on Sumner & West Shore

Figure 11.10   Station 17 on Ohio & Childs
Figure 11.10 Station 17 on Ohio & Childs

Figure 11.12   Station 19 on Lee & Prenatt (no photo available)
Figure 11.12 Station 19 on Lee & Prenatt (no photo available)

figure 11.13   Station 20 on Kenmore north of Vulcan
figure 11.13 Station 20 on Kenmore north of Vulcan

Synchronous condensers for power factor correction were installed in several stations. A synchronous condenser is a synchronous motor running at no load with the field adjusted so the armature takes a leading current. 

Not all businesses were sold on central station electric service.

For example the author was told the Ellicott Square building [Fig11.14] generated electricity in the winter when they operated steam boilers for heating, and purchased electricity from Buffalo General Electric in the summer.v

Figure 11.14   Ellicott Square Building
Figure 11.14 Ellicott Square Building

Figure 11.15]   Larkin Co.
Figure 11.15] Larkin Co.
The Larkin Company [Fig. 11.15]did not stop generating electricity until 1930.vi

Figure 11.16   Hotel Statler
Figure 11.16 Hotel Statler

Hotel Statler [Fig. 11.16], which was built in 1923, used reciprocating steam engine driven ammonia compressors for air conditioning and making ice until about 1970. This required the hotel to operate steam boilers year round.vii

Figure 11.17   Col. Ward Pumping Station
Figure 11.17 Col. Ward Pumping Station

The City of Buffalo’s Col. Ward Pumping Station [Fig. 11.17] at the foot of Porter Avenue kept these huge steam pumps in reserve until about 1970. Electric pumps are in the foreground.viii




Next: Part 12 of 14: Early Electrification of Buffalo: 60-Hz replaces 25-Hz

References

i. H. B. Alverson, “Our Systems of Distribution,” The Welder, Published by the Employees of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 1 No. 8 (1921):12.

ii. “Is Your Home Wired?” The Welder, Published by the Employees of the Buffalo General Electric Company, 1, No 8, (1921):27.

iii. Adams, Niagara Power, 2:292.

iv. “Happenings” (An Annual Log from the Electric Operations Department, Buffalo General Electric Company, 1926, photocopy).

v. Related to the author by George Adams, NMP T&D engineer, ca. 1961.

vi. “Larkin Company Now Uses Niagara Power,” Power Events, Published by Buffalo, Niagara & Eastern Power Corporation, 5, No 2 (1930): 8.

vii. Author’s recollection from personal observation during work as NMP Underground Engineer.

viii. Author’s recollection from personal observation during work as NMP Underground Engineer.